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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of subjects with self-perceived halitosis.

From: Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments

Variables N halitosis N total χ2 p-value
Anxiety 74 (36.3%) 360 (34.2%) 63.846 p < 0.001
Anxiety data missing 26 (12.7%) 38 (3.6%)   
Stress 93 (45.6%) 455 (43.3%) 57.048 p < 0.001
Smoking 61 (29.9%) 293 (27.9%) 18.371 p < 0.001
Alcohol 43 (21.1%) 182 (17.3%) 103.696 p < 0.001
Dental problems     
gum problems 124 (60.8%) 367 (34.9%) 74.726 p < 0.001
sensitive teeth 115 (56.4%) 495 (47.1%) 8.822 p < 0.005
Oral hygiene     
Yes 39 (19.1%) 310 (29.5%) 13.044 p < 0.001
No 165 (80.9%) 742 (70.5%)   
Anemia 44 (21.6%) 139 (13.2%) 43.032 p < 0.001
Thyroid 33 (16.2%) 109 (10.4%) 96.387 p < 0.001
Allergies 92 (45.1%) 443 (42.1%) 7.477 p < 0.005
Asthma 25 (12.3%) 91 (8.7%) 83.401 p < 0.001
Taking medication 82 (40.2%) 328 (31.2) 9.591 p < 0.005
Skin diseases 44 (21.6%) 133 (12.6%) 44.66 p < 0.001
Gastro-intestinal 62 (30.4%) 249 (23.7%) 89.263 p < 0.001
Urinary system 67 (32.8%) 196 (18.6%) 33.718 p < 0.001