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Table 2 Sociodemographic characteristics of subjects with self-perceived halitosis.

From: Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments

Variables N (%) halitosis N.total χ 2 p-value
Age     
not stated 8 (3.9%) 75 (7.1%) 129.879 p < 0.001
<30 48 (23.7%) 413 (39.4%)   
>30 108 (72.4%) 564 (53.5%)   
Gender     
not stated 36 (17.6%) 41 (3.9%) 133.387 p < 0.001
Male 79 (38.7%) 388 (36.9%)   
Female 89 (43.6%) 623 (59.2%)   
Education     
not stated 82 (40.2%) 385 (36.6%) 9.504 p < 0.050
Elementary school 10 (4.9%) 32 (3.0%)   
Middle school 32 (15.7%) 142 (13.5%)   
High school graduate 46 (22.5%) 317 (30.1%)   
University degree 34 (16.7%) 176 (16.7%)   
Occupation     
Unemployed 77 (37.7%) 386 (36.7%) 29.777 p < 0.001
Student 16 (7.8%) 193 (18.3%)   
Housewife 12 (5.9%) 55 (5.2%)   
Manual worker 13 (6.4%) 37 (3.5%)   
Clerical worker 29 (14.2%) 143 (13.6%)   
Teacher 16 (7.8%) 65 (6.2%)   
Professional 23 (11.3%) 120 (11.4%)   
Retired 18 (8.8%) 53 (5.0%)