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Table 2 Global NHP score (95% Confidence Interval) by gender in different socio-demographic, drug use and health related variables.

From: Gender differences in health related quality of life of young heroin users

  Women Men Total
  N = 262 N = 701 N = 963
  Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI)
All 41.2 (38.3-44.1) 34.1 (32.4-35.8) 36.0 (34.5-37.5)
Age groups *   
18-24 y 35.9 (32.4-39.4) 31.4 (28.3-34.5) 32.9 (30.5-35.3)
25-28 y 45.1 (39.4-50.8) 35.3 (32.6-38.0) 37.5 (35.0-40.0)
29-30 y 45.4 (39.1-51.7) 35.1 (31.8-38.4) 37.8 (34.8-40.8)
Educational level   ** **
Primary or < 45.0 (40.0-50.0) 38.4 (35.8-41.0) 39.9 (37.6-42.2)
> = Secondary 38.8 (35.4-42.2) 29.9 (27.7-32.1) 32.7 (30.8-34.6)
Living arrangements † * * *
Flats 40.6 (37.1-44.1) 35.1 (33.0-37.2) 36.6 (34.8-38.4)
Squats 37.9 (32.2-43.6) 27.0 (23.1-30.9) 30.9 (27.6-34.2)
Homeless or institution 52.0 (43.0-61.0) 35.8 (31.6-40.0) 38.9 (34.9-42.9)
Work † * * **
Yes 33.6 (27.8-39.4) 30.9 (28.1-33.7) 31.5 (28.9-34.1)
Did not work 43.7 (40.5-46.9) 35.7 (33.5-37.9) 38.1 (36.3-39.9)
Ever in prison * * *
No 38.9 (35.6-42.2) 31.5 (29.2-33.8) 34.1 (32.2-36.0)
Yes 47.4 (41.7-53.1) 36.8 (34.2-39.4) 38.6 (36.2-41.0)
Ever confined to bed †   * **
No 39.8 (35.5-44.1) 31.6 (29.5-33.7) 33.4 (31.5-35.3)
Yes 42.1 (38.2-46.0) 37.9 (34.9-40.9) 39.3 (36.9-41.7)
Inpatient in a hospital †    *
No 40.1 (36.8-43.4) 33.3 (31.3-35.3) 35.1 (33.4-36.8)
Yes 43.8 (37.8-49.8) 37.0 (33.1-40.9) 39.2 (35.9-42.5)
Infections   * *
Abª HIV - 40.4 (37.2-43.6) 33.0 (31.1-34.9) 34.9 (33.2-36.6)
Ab HIV + 43.4 (37.1-49.7) 39.9 (35.6-44.2) 41.1 (37.5-44.7)
Ab HCV - 39.2 (35.4-43.0) 32.7 (30.1-35.3) 34.6 (32.4-36.8)
Ab HCV + 42.9 (38.6-47.2) 35.4 (33.0-37.8) 37.4 (35.4-39.6)
   *  
Ab HBV core - 40.9 (37.8-44.0) 33.2 (31.3-35.1) 35.3 (33.7-36.9)
Ab HBV core + 41.9 (34.2-49.6) 38.7 (34.3-43.1) 39.5 (35.7-43.3)
Alcohol use severity‡ *   
No alcohol use 35.9 (30.0-41.8) 37.6 (32.9-42.3) 37.0 (33.3-40.7)
Moderate 40.5 (35.5-45.5) 31.8 (29.3-34.3) 33.7 (31.5-35.9)
At risk 39.6 (32.5-46.7) 35.9 (30.0-41.8) 37.3 (32.7-41.9)
Heavy use 47.5 (42.0-53.0) 34.8 (31.6-38.0) 37.8 (35.0-40.6)
N of years drug use * * *
Cocaine    
0-4 y 35.7 (30.3-41.1) 30.0 (25.6-34.4) 32.1 (28.7-35.5)
   5-10 y 39.1 (35.1-43.1) 32.7 (29.9-35.5) 34.7 (32.4-37.0)
   > 10 y 48.2 (42.5-53.9) 36.4 (33.8-39.0) 38.8 (36.4-41.2)
Heroin   * *
   0-4 y 36.8 (32.2-41.4) 28.7 (25.3-32.1) 31.7 (28.9-34.5)
   5-10 y 40.9 (36.5-45.3) 33.4 (30.6-36.2) 35.5 (33.1-37.9)
   > 10 y 46.3 (40.3-52.3) 37.2 (34.4-40.0) 39.1 (36.5-41.7)
Poly-drug use†    *
No 30.0 (17.4-42.6) 29.2 (19.9-38.5) 29.4 (21.9-36.9)
Yes 41.8 (38.9-44.7) 34.3 (32.5-36.1) 36.3 (34.8-37.8)
Injection    
Never 39.7 (35.0-44.4) 33.3 (30.3-36.3) 35.2 (32.6-37.8)
Ever injecting 42.1 (38.4-45.8) 34.5 (32.4-36.6) 36.4 (34.5-38.3)
Intravenous use last 12 m 41.4 (37.4-45.4) 34.9 (32.6-37.2) 36.6 (34.6-38.6)
Drug use treatment    
Never 38.0 (32.85-43.15) 31.5 (28.1-34.9) 33.4 (30.6-36.2)
Before last year 43.7 (37.42-49.98) 34.4 (30.7-38.1) 36.4 (33.2-39.6)
Methadone last year 43.1 (38.38-47.82) 35.8 (32.8-38.8) 38.0 (35.4-40.6)
Other last year 38.5 (30.08-46.92) 34.2 (30.1-38.3) 35.3 (31.5-39.1)
Psychiatric treatment †   * *
No 40.6 (37.58-43.62) 33.4 (31.6-35.2) 35.3 (33.7-36.9)
Yes 46.4 (36.68-56.12) 42.9 (36.0-49.8) 44.1 (38.5-49.7)
Opiate overdoses   * *
Never 41.0 (37.58-44.42) 32.7 (30.7-34.7) 34.9 (33.1-36.7)
   Ever 41.7 (36.34-47.06) 38.5 (35.1-41.9) 39.4 (36.5-42.3)
Last 12 months 43.2 (33.23-53.17) 37.9 (31.3-44.5) 39.4 (33.9-44.9)
SDSª score ** ** **
Cocaine    
0 - 1 32.2 (27.58-36.82) 25.1 (22.3-27.9) 26.9 (24.5-29.3)
2 - 6 40.5 (35.6-45.4) 33.7 (30.9-36.5) 35.4 (33.0-37.8)
7 - 15 47.5 (42.78-52.22) 42.3 (39.2-45.4) 43.9 (41.3-46.5)
Heroin ** ** **
0 - 6 32.3 (27.5-37.1) 23.9 (21.3-26.5) 26.1 (23.8-28.4)
7 - 9 36.6 (32.48-40.72) 34.8 (31.8-37.8) 35.3 (32.8-37.8)
10 - 15 52.4 (47.48-57.32) 42.1 (39.2-45.0) 44.9 (42.4-47.4)
  1. ª CI: Confidence Interval; Ab: antibodies; SDS: Severity of Dependence scale
  2. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.001
  3. † refers to last 12 months
  4. ‡ different cut-points used for both genders: men: 40-60 g/day; women: 20-40 g/day