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Table 2 The association between weak sense of coherence and nephropathy, severe retinopathy and HbA1c level.

From: The cross-sectional associations between sense of coherence and diabetic microvascular complications, glycaemic control, and patients' conceptions of type 1 diabetes

  Nephropathy Severe retinopathy HbA 1c ≥7.5%
  Men Women Men Women Men and women combined
Model 1      
   Weak SOC 1.97 (1.26 - 3.08) 1.07 (0.69 - 1.66) 1.53 (1.01 - 2.33) 1.15 (0.81 - 1.63) 1.44 (1.06 - 1.97)
   Gender, 1 = male NA NA NA NA 0.84 (0.65 - 1.08)
Model 2      
   Weak SOC 1.97 (1.15 - 3.05) 1.03 (0.65 - 1.62) 1.39 (0.85 - 2.27) 1.20 (0.80 - 1.81) 1.43 (1.04 - 1.95)
   Gender, 1 = male NA NA NA NA 0.83 (0.64 - 1.08)
   Diabetes duration, years 1.07 (1.05 - 1.09) 1.04 (1.02 - 1.06) 1.11 (1.09 - 1.13) 1.10 (1.08 - 1.12) 0.99 (0.98 - 1.00)
   Age at onset, years 0.99 (0.97 - 1.01) 0.95 (0.92 - 0.98) 0.99 (0.97 - 1.01) 0.94 (0.92 - 0.97) 0.99 (0.98 - 1.01)
Model 3      
   Weak SOC 2.11 (1.13 - 3.95) 0.80 (0.44 - 1.45) 1.15 (0.63 - 2.11) 1.23 (0.75 - 2.03) 1.52 (1.07 - 2.17)
   Gender, 1 = male NA NA NA NA 0.86 (0.64 - 1.15)
   Diabetes duration, years 1.10 (1.07 - 1.13) 1.04 (1.01 - 1.06) 1.12 (1.09 - 1.15) 1.11 (1.08 - 1.13) 0.99 (0.98 - 1.01)
   Age at onset, years 1.00 (0.94 - 1.03) 0.95 (0.92 - 0.99) 1.00 (0.97 - 1.03) 0.95 (0.92 - 0.98) 1.00 (0.98 - 1.01)
   Low SES, 1 = yes 1.50 (0.76 - 2.97) 1.96 (0.95 - 4.05) 1.14 (0.59 - 2.21) 1.39 (0.70 - 2.75) 0.81 (0.54 - 1.23)
   HbA1c 1.37 (1.12 - 1.69) 1.32 (1.08 - 1.61) 1.36 (1.11 - 1.67) 1.17 (0.97 - 1.40) NA
  1. Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval). Weak SOC, weak sense of coherence; Low SES, low socioeconomic status (unskilled blue collar workers); NA, not applicable. Logistic regression analysis. Significant results are highlighted in bold.