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Table 3 Baseline and follow-up results in the three different treatment groups

From: Barriers towards insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients: results of an observational longitudinal study

  Patients who remained insulin-naïve Patients switched to insulin treatment Patients who remained on insulin therapy p between groups
HbA1c (%)
Baseline 8.3 (± 1.4) 9.1 (± 1.7) 8.6 (± 1.7) .078
Endpoint 6.7 (± 0.8) 7.1 (± 1.1) 7.7 (± 1.2) < .001c
Change -1.6 (± 1.7)* -1.8 (± 1.8)* -0.9 (± 1.7)* < .0011bc
BMI (kg/m2)
Baseline 32.9 (± 6.5) 32.4 (± 5.8) 35.7 (± 7.9) .051
Endpoint 31.2 (± 6.6) 31.3 (± 5.2) 35.0 (± 7.9) .010bc
Change -1.7 (± 1.5)* -1.1 (± 1.9)* -0.7 (± 2.6)* .0541
ITAS (total score)
Baseline 51.2 (± 12.2) 49.2 (± 9.8) 45.8 (± 8.3) .040 c
Endpoint 53.6 (± 12.3) 46.2 (± 9.9) 44.5 (± 8.0) < .001bc
Change 2.4 (± 14.8)ns -3.0 (± 7.0)* -1.3 (± 8.0) ns .0031ac
Negative ITAS
Baseline 41.8 (± 12.2) 41.0 (± 9.1) 37.4 (± 10.4) .063
Endpoint 43.4 (± 11.8) 37.9 (± 8.7) 35.7 (± 7.4) .002bc
Change 1.6 (± 15.0) ns -3.1 (± 6.5)* -1.7 (± 7.3) ns .0061ac
Positive ITAS
Baseline 10.4 (± 2.5) 9.5 (± 2.2) 9.4 (± 1.9) .098
Endpoint 11.0 (± 2.8) 9.4 (± 2.2) 9.6 (± 2.0) .008bc
Change 0.6 (± 3.0) ns -0.1 (± 2.2) ns 0.2 (± 2.4) ns .0421ac
PAID
Baseline 27.7 (± 17.8) 33.8 (± 18.4) 28.2 (± 14.1) .166
Endpoint 21.8 (± 13.9) 26.5 (± 15.6) 24.6 (± 16.9) .384
Change -5.9 (± 15.8) ns -7.3 (± 14.9) * -3.6 (± 15.1) ns .2851
WHO-5
Baseline 16.4 (± 6.0) 13.6 (± 6.3) 12.9 (± 6.4) .056
Endpoint 16.7 (± 5.6) 15.6 (± 5.8) 13.9 (± 6.0) .129
Change 0.3 (± 5.7) ns 2.0 (± 4.9) * 1.0 (± 5.7) ns .3891
CES-D
Baseline 11.7 (± 8.2) 16.1 (± 10.2) 17.8 (± 10.9) .039c
Endpoint 10.8 (± 7.9) 11.9 (± 9.8) 16.4 (± 9.8) .019
Change -0.9 (± 7.1) ns -4.2 (± 6.0) * -1.4 (± 8.5) ns .0451b
Trait Anxiety
Baseline 37.7 (± 9.7) 41.3 (± 12.0) 41.6 (± 8.4) .227
Endpoint 36.4 (± 8.3) 40.2 (± 10.6) 40.7 (± 9.9) .138
Change -1.3 (± 5.9) ns -1.1 (± 8.2) ns -0.9 (± 7.2) ns .6221
  1. Values are means (± SD); 1 adjusted for baseline; a = p < .05 between "patients who remained insulin-naïve" and "patients switched to insulin treatment"; b = p < .05 between "patients switched to insulin treatment" and "patients who remained on insulin therapy"; c = p < .05 between "patients who remained insulin-naïve" and "patients who remained on insulin therapy"; * significant within comparison (p < .05), ns non-significant within comparison (p > .05)