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Table 3 Adjusted association between psychological status and health-related quality of life (SGRQ).

From: Factors affecting the relationship between psychological status and quality of life in COPD patients

  Total Activity Impact Symptoms
  β (95% CI)* p value β (95% CI)* p value β (95% CI)* p value β (95% CI)* p value
Psychological factors:         
    Anxiety only 6.02 (2.88, 9.16) < 0.001 4.23 (-0.07, 8.52) 0.054 8.71 (4.93, 12.49) < 0.001 4.07 (-0.42, 8.56) 0.076
    Depression only 6.29 (0.55, 12.03) 0.032 11.34 (2.92, 19.77) 0.008 5.90 (-1.03, 12.82) 0.095 4.25 (-3.85, 12.34) 0.303
    Anxiety and depression 17.06 (12.50, 21.62) < 0.001 17.73 (11.24, 24.22) < 0.001 18.35 (12.79, 23.91) < 0.001 11.49 (5.36, 17.62) < 0.001
Gender: females - - -7.84 (-14.67, -1.01) 0.025 - - - -
Working status: current workers - - - - - - 8.03 (3.43, 12.64) 0.001
ATS/ERS severity stages:         
    Mild reference   reference   reference    
    Moderate 5.25 (-0.09, 10.58) 0.054 5.72 (-1.58, 13.01) 0.124 7.34 (0.91, 13.77) 0.025 - -
    Severe 11.25 (5.73, 16.76) < 0.001 14.49 (6.89, 22.09) < 0.001 12.93 (6.28, 19.57) < 0.001   
    Very severe 16.84 (9.78, 23.90) < 0.001 18.25 (8.35, 28.14) < 0.001 18.51 (9.92, 27.10) < 0.001   
6MWD (m) - - -0.02 (-0.04, -0.00) 0.033 - - - -
Dyspnea (score from 0 to 5) 6.87 (5.90, 7.85) < 0.001 9.87 (8.46, 11.28) < 0.001 5.54 (4.37, 6.72) < 0.001 4.36 (3.09, 5.64) < 0.001
BMI: <20 (kg/m 2 ) - - - - 9.93 (0.90, 18.96) 0.031 - -
Barthel Index: dependent 6.67 (2.18, 11.15) 0.003 10.73 (3.14, 18.31) 0.006 5.76 (0.35, 11.17) 0.037 - -
Charlson Comorbidities: ≥2 3.70 (1.26, 6.15) 0.003 4.94 (1.53, 8.35) 0.005 3.91 (0.96, 6.86) 0.010 - -
Adjusted R 2 0.61 0.65 0.49 0.20
  1. CI: confidence interval
  2. * Each column is a single multivariate lineal regression model including as covariates the variables that show a coefficient in each column. Beta-coefficients are expressed in points of the SGRQ score per (i) each unit of the continuous covariates in the model, or (ii) a change with respect to reference category in categorical covariates.
  3. † Dependent defined as Barthel Index < 100
  4. Age, socioeconomic status, level of education, marital status, smoking status, DLco, RV/TLC, PaO2 and PaCO2, were tested as potential confounders and finally not included because they were not independently related to the outcome, nor modified estimates for the remaining variables.