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Table 4 Association (coefficient and 95% confidence interval) of the respiratory symptom factors with the physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summary (MCS) in subjects with neither asthma nor COPD.

From: Respiratory symptoms in adults are related to impaired quality of life, regardless of asthma and COPD: results from the European community respiratory health survey

  PCS MCS
  Coeff. 95% CI p Coeff. 95% CI p
Model 1 #         
Wheezing/breathlessness -1.88 (-2.24, -1.52) < 0.001 -1.57 (-1.95, -1.18) < 0.001
Cough/phlegm -1.04 (-1.37, -0.71) < 0.001 -0.92 (-1.28, -0.55) < 0.001
Model 2 ##         
Wheezing/breathlessness -1.85 (-2.28, -1.41) < 0.001 -1.40 (-1.88, -0.92) < 0.001
Cough/phlegm -0.96 (-1.35, -0.57) < 0.001 -0.94 (-1.36, -0.52) < 0.001
  1. # Adjusted for age, gender, smoking, occupation, body mass index, comorbidity, and centre.
  2. ## Adjusted for age, gender, smoking, occupation, body mass index, comorbidity, centre, atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and FEV1