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Table 3 Association (coefficient and 95% confidence interval) of the physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summa (MCS) with persistent* respiratory symptoms.

From: Respiratory symptoms in adults are related to impaired quality of life, regardless of asthma and COPD: results from the European community respiratory health survey

  PCS MCS
  coef 95% CI coef 95% CI
Persistent symptoms     
Wheezing -4.06 (-4.95, -3.16) -2.45 (-3.41, -1.49)
Wheezing and breathlessness -6.08 (-7.51, -4.65) -2.19 (-3.66, -0.72)
Wheezing without a cold -4.13 (-5.43, -2.84) -1.88 (-3.14, -0.61)
Woken up by tightness in chest -7.15 (-8.65, -5.65) -4.02 (-5.51, -2.52)
Breathlessness at rest -8.05 (-11.18, -4.93) -3.81 (-6.68, -0.94)
Breathlessness after exercise -5.93 (-7.11, -4.75) -2.92 (-4.12, -1.72)
Breathlessness at night -5.68 (-7.91, -3.45) -0.78 (-2.95,1.40)
Cough at night -3.68 (-4.46, -2.91) -2.07 (-2.92, -1.21)
Cough in the morning -3.68 (-4.89, -2.46) -2.04 (-3.31, -0.76)
Cough in the winter -4.74 (-6.05, -3.43) -4.08 (-5.50, -2.67)
Chronic chough -4.83 (-6.77, -2.90) -3.96 (-6.01, -1.90)
Phlegm in the morning -3.92 (-5.04, -2.80) -2.04 (-3.21, -0.86)
Phlegm in the winter -4.41 (-5.90, -2.93) -2.80 (-4.33, -1.28)
Chronic phlegm -2.64 (-4.42, -0.86) -2.99 (-5.03, -0.94)
  1. *Persistent meaning presence of the symptom both in ECRHS I and II. Coefficients give deviations from mean score compared to never having had the symptom. Adjusted for age, gender, smoking, comorbidity, occupation, BMI, and study centre.