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Table 1 Characteristics of validation study participants (Missing N = 0 unless stated)

From: Validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care in Africa: the APCA African Palliative Outcome Scale

  Phase 1a
(ii) Face validity: qualitative interview
Phase 1b
(ii) Face validity: cognitive interview
Phase 2
(iii) Construct validity
Phase 3
(iv) Internal consistency,
(v) Test-retest reliability &
(vii) Time to complete
PATIENTS N 90 73^ 285 307
Age     
Mean (SD) 43.2 (15.4) 44.8 (16.0) 40.1 (12.8) 41.9 (14.1)
Gender     
Female 58 (64.4%) 49 (67.1%) 197 (69.1%) 207 (67.4%)
Primary diagnosis     
Cancer 34 (37.8%) 33 (45.2%) 86 (30.2%) 90 (29.3%)
HIV 61 (67.8%) 44 (60.3%) 229 (80.4%) 244 (79.5%)
Of HIV+ pts:     
On ART 39 (63.9%) 24 (54.5%) 127 (55.5%)a 140 (57.4%)
Prior AIDS     
diagnosis 54 (88.5%) 37 (84.1%) 192 (83.8%) 196 (80.3%)
ECOG Functional status     
Fully active 10 (11.1%) 8 (11.0%) 21 (7.4%) 29 (9.4%)
Restricted 24 (26.7%) 24 (32.9%) 65 (22.8%) 79 (25.7%)
Ambulatory 17 (18.9%) 17 (23.3%) 79 (27.7%) 71 (23.1%)
Limited self care 25 (27.8%) 14 (19.2%) 87 (30.5%) 101 (32.9%)
Completely disabled 14 (15.6%) 10 (13.7%) 33 (11.6%) 27 (8.8%)
Household size     
Mean (SD) 5.2 (5.0)a 4.9 (3.1)a 5.3 (2.5)b 5.5 (3.2)
Responsible for children?     
Yes 68 (75.6%) 54 (74.0%) 232 (81.4%) 238 (77.5%)
Mean no. of children (SD) 2.8 (1.8) 2.9 (1.8) 3.1 (1.96) 3.1 (2.2)
Location of home     
Urban 23 (25.6%) 23 (31.5%) 53 (18.6%) 79 (25.7%)
Peri-urban 26 (28.9%) 26 (35.6%) 53 (18.6%) 52 (16.9%)
Rural 41 (45.6%) 24 (32.9%) 179 (62.8%) 176 (57.3%)
Place of care     
Home 56 (62.2%) 50 (68.5%) 180 (63.2%) 204 (66.4%)
Inpatient 27 (30.0%) 16 (21.9%) 74 (26.0%) 79 (25.7%)
Outpatient 3 (3.3%) 3 (4.1%) 13 (4.6%) 12 (3.9%)
Day care 4 (4.4%) 4 (5.5%) 18 (6.3%) 12 (3.9%)
Weeks under care     
Mean (SD) 51.4 (85.2)a 62.6 (91.2)a 46.0 (74.8) 39.1 (69.5)
Median 15.0 25.0 12.0 8.0
FAMILY CARERS N 38 29 199 200
Age    * *
Mean (SD) 44.8 (17.5)b 46.9 (18.3)   
Gender    * *
Female 32 (84.5%)b 26 (89.7%)   
Household size    * *
Mean (SD) 7.1 (3.5)b 6.8 (3.7)   
Responsible for children?    * *
Yes 30 (78.9%)b 24 (82.8%)   
Mean no. of children (SD) 3.1 (1.6) 3.0 (1.7)   
Location of home    * *
Urban 4 (10.5%) 4 (13.8%)   
Peri-urban 10 (26.3%) 10 (34.5%)   
Rural 21 (55.3%) 15 (51.7%)   
Missing 3 0   
  1. ^ Subset of sample 1a
  2. * Carer data not collected for Phase 2 and 3.
  3. a Missing = 1
  4. b Missing = 3