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Table 4 Multiple linear regression on HRQOL scores*

From: Health-related quality of life of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B infection

  SF-6D SF36v2-PCS SF36v2-MCS CLDQ-Overall
  Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI)
Stage of illness (vs. uncomplicated CHB)     
Impaired LF -0.04† (-0.116, 0.034) -3.80 (-9.083, 1.476) -1.14 (-7.194, 4.914) -0.44† (-0.94, 0.065)
Cirrhosis -0.08†‡ (-0.143, 0.015) -5.36‡ (-9.856, 0.869) -2.59 (-7.742, 2.563) -0.68†‡ (-1.106, 0.251)
HCC -0.10†‡ (-0.16, -0.03) -5.62‡ (-10.196, -1.045) -3.70 (-8.944, 1.548) -0.73†‡ (-1.161, -0.29)
Have taken treatment (vs. no treatment) -0.04†‡ (-0.079, -0.003) -1.84 (-4.536, 0.86) -3.62†‡ (-6.71, -0.523) -0.26†‡ (-0.516, -0.003)
Clinical     
Bilirubin (umol/L, 10-2) -0.05 (-0.107, 0.008) -7.38†‡ (-11.429, -3.337) -4.33 (-8.968, 0.31) -0.42†‡ (-0.807, -0.037)
Co-morbidity     
Psychological illness, present (vs. absent) -0.10†‡ (-0.193, -0.015) -4.36 (-10.643, 1.932) -12.78†‡ (-19.993, -5.574) -0.67†‡ (-1.272, -0.075)
Socio-demographic     
Smoking status (vs. never smoker)     
Former smoker -0.06†‡ (-0.109, -0.017) -3.24 (-6.491, 0.016) -4.52†‡ (-8.248, -0.788) -0.24 (-0.548, 0.071)
Current smoker 0.01† (-0.058, 0.074) -3.21 (-7.854, 1.43) 4.46† (-0.862, 9.782) 0.23 (-0.212, 0.671)
Age (years, 10-1) 0.04†‡ (0.015, 0.056) 0.80 (-0.642, 2.239) 1.88†‡ (0.229, 3.532) 0.15†‡ (0.012, 0.286)
Sex, female (vs. male) -0.07†‡ (-0.126, -0.015) -5.73†‡ (-9.609, -1.859) -2.08 (-6.528, 2.359) -0.30 (-0.671, 0.066)
Occupation, others (vs. professional and administrative) 0.01 (-0.034, 0.057) -3.45†‡ (-6.644, -0.259) 0.56 (-3.097, 4.225) -0.14 (-0.443, 0.164)
Household income (vs. >30000)     
<10000 -0.07‡ (-0.127, -0.006) -3.74 (-7.992, 0.503) -3.90 (-8.766, 0.974) -0.14 (-0.544, 0.264)
10000–19999 -0.03 (-0.095, 0.031) 0.40 (-4.038, 4.833) -2.21 (-7.3, 2.872) 0.08 (-0.344, 0.5)
20000–29999 -0.01 (-0.076, 0.061) -0.20 (-5.014, 4.621) 0.25 (-5.273, 5.774) 0.11 (-0.347, 0.569)
Constant 0.70 (0.582, 0.824) 52.63 (44.11, 61.146) 45.88 (36.118, 55.652) 5.63 (4.824, 6.444)
R-square 0.23 0.29 0.24 0.25
  1. PCS = Physical Component Summary Score; MCS = Mental Component Summary Score; CHB = Chronic Hepatitis B; LF = Liver Function; HCC = Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Notes:
  2. *Stage of illness, treatment, clinical, co-morbidities, and socio-demographic variables were entered as independent variables. Biomarkers (ALT, AST and bilirubin), duration of illness and age were treated as continuous variables; all other variables were entered as categorical variables. Sex, education attainment, marital status, occupation, taking anti-viral treatment, co-morbidity, and family history of HB/CLD and biomarker (AFP) were coded as dichotomous variables: female vs. male; primary or below vs. other educational levels; other marital status vs. married; other occupation vs. administrative, managerial and professionals, presence vs. absence of a diagnosis, abnormal vs. normal.
  3. † Significant in overall model (p < 0.05).
  4. ‡ Significant difference compared with reference group which indicates in bracket, except for bilirubin and age (p < 0.05).