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Table 3 Estimates of regression coefficient of multilevel regression analysis for practice and patient characteristics (number of patients = 6997; number of practices = 96)

From: Quality of life of Australian chronically-ill adults: patient and practice characteristics matter

Parameters (reference category) Estimate for the main model
  Physical components score (PCS-12) Mental components score (MCS-12)
  Regression Coefficients (Standard Error) Regression Coefficients (Standard Error)
Patient main effect   
Intercept 35.44 33.74
Female patients (male) 2.78 (0.46) 1.54 (0.51)
Age, years   
40–59 (18–39) -4.65 (0.40) 2.22 (0.44)
>59 (18–39) -7.64 (0.45) 6.02 (0.50)
Good or very good health (very bad, bad or fair health) 10.83 (0.23) 7.34 (0.25)
Owner-occupier (rented) 0.79 (0.29) 1.72 (0.32)
College/university (elementary/high School) 1.02 (0.25) -0.05 (0.28)
Employed patients (unemployed) 7.29 (0.48) 4.81 (0.52)
Retired patients (unemployed) 3.99 (0.48) 3.69 (0.53)
Married/cohabiting (single/separated/divorced/widowed) 0.47 (0.25) 0.63 (0.27)*
Born in Australia (non-English countries) -0.68 (0.35) 1.46 (0.39)
Born in USA/UK/Canada/NZ (non-English countries) 0.23 (0.44) 0.87 (0.48)
Diabetes (two or more conditions) 2.66 (0.37) 1.49 (0.41)
Ischaemic heart disease/hypertension (two or more conditions) 1.24 (0.34) 0.55 (0.37)
Asthma (two or more conditions) 1.01 (0.42)* 1.42 (0.46)
Disease unknown (two or more conditions) 3.83 (0.31) 1.22 (0.34)
Overall satisfaction with care -0.30 (0.23) 1.20 (0.25)
Patient interaction effect   
Female × employed -3.46 (0.59) -3.34 (0.65)
Female × retired -3.34 (0.58) -1.38 (0.64)*
Practice main effect   
Size 1–3 general practitioners (4 or more GPs) -0. 99 (0.27) -0.55 (0.26)*
Urban (Rural) 0.53 (0.28) 0.16 (0.27)
  1. Note: *P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001
  2. Interactions not shown in the table were not included in the model.
  3. NZ = New Zealand
  4. Patient characteristics were collected independently using GPAS22 for the same respondents.