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Table 2 Studies on relationship between quality of life data and survival in patients with lung cancer

From: Quality of life data as prognostic indicators of survival in cancer patients: an overview of the literature from 1982 to 2008

Author(s) Year Sample HRQOL measure(s) Results*
Pater and Loeb [11] 1982 651 bronchogenic carcinoma Symptomatic history, performance status, weight loss and age Weight loss and performance status were significantly affected survival.
Kaasa et al. [14] 1989 102 inoperable non-small-cell, limited disease Psychological well-being + disease-related symptoms + personal functioning + everyday activity General symptoms and psychological well-being were the best predictive value for survival.
Ganz et al. [22] 1991 40 advanced metastatic lung cancer FLI-C A statistically significant relationship was observed between initial patient-rated QOL and subsequent survival.
Ruckdeschel et al. [23] 1994 438 lung cancer FLI-C Total FLI-C score was significant predictor of survival.
Loprinzi et al. [24] 1994 1,115 advanced colorectal or lung cancers A designed patient-completed questionnaire Patients' assessment of their own performance status and nutritional factors such as appetite, caloric intake, or overall food intake were prognostic of survival.
Buccheri et al. [25] 1995 128 Lung cancer TIQ The self-estimated difficulty at work and doing housework were significant independent prognostic determinants of survival.
Buccheri et al. [26] 1998 133 Lung cancer SDS Depression was associated with survival. Diverse SDS subscales were associated with survival.
Herndon et al. [27] 1999 206 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 + Duke-UNC Social Support Scale Pain was a significant predictor of survival but overall QOL was not.
Langendijk et al. [28] 2000 198 inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 Global QOL was a strong prognostic factor of survival.
Burrows et al. [29] 2000 85 recurrent symptomatic malignant pleural effusions KPS Only the KPS score (score ≥ 70) at the time of thoracoscopy was predictive of survival. Pleural fluid pH, pleural fluid glucose, and EPC scores were not as reliable as initially reported.
Montazeri et al. [30] 2001 129 lung cancer (small and non-small-cell) NHP + EORTC QLQ-C30 + EORTC QLQ-LC13 Baseline global QOL was most significant predictor of the length of survival.
Auchter et al. [31] 2001 30 non-small cell lung cancer FACT-L (TOI) The change in TOI score was not associated with survival. A trend was noted for shorter survival with the largest negative change in TOI score.
Moinpour et al. [32] 2002 222 advanced non-small-cell FACT-L Total FACT-L score was predictor of survival.
Nakahara et al. [33] 2002 179 advanced small- and non-small cell lung cancer Tokyo University Egogram (measure for mental state) Mental state was prognostic of survival.
Naughton et al. [34] 2002 70 small-cell lung cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 + CES-D + MOS Social Support Questionnaire + a sleep quality scale Higher depressive symptoms were borderline significant in predicting decreased survival.
Eton et al. [35] 2003 573 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer FACT-L + TOI Baseline physical well-being and TOI scores predicted either survival duration or disease progression respectively.
Dharma-Wardene et al. [36] 2004 44 advanced lung cancer FACT-G Baseline FACT-G total score was significantly associated with survival.
Nowak et al. [37] 2004 53 pleural mesothelomia EORTC QLQ-C30 + EORTC QLQ-LC13 Functional domains and symptom scales (fatigue and pain) demonstrated predictive validity for survival.
Maione et al. [38] 2005 566 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer ADL + IADL + EORTC QOL-C30 (global QOL) Baseline global QOL and IADL were significant prognostic factors for overall survival.
Brown et al. [39] 2005 273 non-small-cell lung cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 + EORTC QLQ-LC17 + DDC Global QOL, role functioning, fatigue, appetite loss and constipation were prognostic indicators of survival.
Martins et al. [40] 2005 41 locally advanced or metastatic lung cancer LCSS Patients' scores on the LCSS appetite and fatigue subscales were independent predictors of survival.
Efficace et al. [41] 2006 391 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 + EORTC QLQ-LC13 Pain, and dysphagia were significant prognostic factors for survival.
Sundstrom et al. [42] 2006 301 stag III non-small-cell lung cancer EORTC QLQ-C30 Appetite loss was the most significant prognostic factor of survival.
Bottomley et al. [43] 2007 250 malignant pleural mesothelioma EORTC QLQ-C30 + EORTC QLQ-LC13 Pain, and appetite loss were independent prognostic indicators of survival.
Fielding and Wong [44] 2007 534 liver and lung cancers FACT-G Global QOL scores did not predict survival in liver and lung cancer. Physical well-being and appetite predicted survival in lung cancer.
Jacot et al. [45] 2008 301 non-small-cell lung cancer LCSS Pretreatment LCSS global symptoms score was independent determinant of overall survival.
  1. Abbreviations: CES-D: Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; DDC: Daily Diary Card; EORTC QLQ-C30: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire; EORTC QLQ-LC13 (or QLQ LC17): EORTC Lung Cancer specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (previously containing 17items); FACT-G: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General module; FACT-L: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung module; FLI-C: Functional Living Index-Cancer; IADL: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; KPS: Karnofsky Performance Status; LCSS: Lung Cancer Symptoms Scale; MOS: Medical Outcomes Study; ADL: Activities of Daily Living; NHP: Nottingham Health Profile; QOL: quality of life; SDS: Self-rating Depression Scale; TIQ: Therapy Impact Questionnaire; TOI: Trial Outcome Index.
  2. * All results obtained from multivariate analyses after controlling for one or more demographic and known biomedical prognostic factors.