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Table 1 Demographics and clinical variables in the wrist fracture patients, hip fracture patients, and the control group.

From: Is global quality of life reduced before fracture in patients with low-energy wrist or hip fracture? A comparison with matched controls

  Wrist Hip Control group p value*
  n = 181 n = 97 n = 226  
Demographics     
Age (years) 66.9 (9.9) 74.9 (9.8) 66.8 (9.0) 0.003 bc
Females 161 (89) 71 (73) 192 (85) 0.003 bc
BMI (kg/m2) 25.4 (4.3) 23.1 (4.0) 26.6 (4.3) < 0.001 abc
Education level     0.040 b
< 10 years 62 (37) 40 (48) 88 (39)  
11–13 years 70 (42) 29 (35) 70 (31)  
> 13 years 36 (21) 14 (17) 67 (30)  
Cohabiting 92 (53) 34 (36) 152 (68) < 0.001 abc
Regular exercise** 134 (74) 57 (59) 169 (77) 0.008 bc
Current smoker 29 (16) 29 (30) 30 (13) 0.001 bc
Clinical characteristics     
Current glucocorticoids 12 (7) 12 (13) 3 (1) < 0.001 ab
Current calcium and/or vitamin D 40 (22) 20 (21) 50 (22) 0.950
Current ART 26 (14) 9 (9) 13 (6) 0.013 a
Previous fracture(s) 97(54) 46 (48) 97 (45) 0.175
≥ 1 fall in previous year 75 (47) 48 (53) 67 (36) 0.023b
Osteoporosis*** 60 (33) 57 (59) 37 (16) < 0.001 abc
Health-focused QOL (SF-36)     
SF-36 PCS**** 50.9 (9.8) 46.3 (10.5) 51.3 (8.3) < 0.001 bc
SF-36 MCS**** 50.1 (9.9) 47.7 (11.6) 50.7 (8.7) 0.044 b
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD), and group variables as numbers and per cent (%).
  2. * Chi-square used to compare categorical data, and ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test used for continuous variables. Significant differences between the marked groups: a = wrist fracture patients vs. control group, b = hip fracture patient vs. control group, and c = wrist fracture patients vs. hip fracture patients. P-values marked with bold indicate statistically significant differences between the groups.
  3. ** Exercise more than 30 minutes three times a week.
  4. *** Osteoporosis at total hip and/or spine L2–L4.
  5. **** SF-36 scores range from 0 to 100, where 100 means perfect health.
  6. Specific osteoporosis treatment: oestrogens, biphosponates, or selective oestrogen receptor modulators.
  7. ART, antiresorptive treatment; BMI, body mass index; PCS, physical component summary; MCS, mental component summary.