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Table 2 Comparisons of scores on main variables by group (n = 52 per group)

From: Do quality of life, participation and environment of older adults differ according to level of activity?

Continuous variables G1 Mean (SD) G2 Mean (SD) G3 Mean (SD) p value
1. Quality of life (QLI;/30)     
   - Health and functioning 23.2 (2.7) a 20.1 (4.0) b 16.5 (3.8) < 0.001 c
   - Socio-economic 23.1 (2.8) a 21.2 (3.3) 20.3 (3.5) < 0.001 c
   - Psychological/spiritual 23.4 (2.4) d 22.8 (3.7) 21.6 (3.3) 0.009 e
   - Family 23.6 (4.0) 23.7 (5.2) 23.2 (4.0) 0.83c
Total score 23.3 (2.3) a 21.5 (3.1) b 19.6 (2.9) < 0.001 c
2. Participation (Life-H)     
• Accomplishment scale (/9)     
   - Daily activities 8.3 (0.4) a 7.3 (0.7) b 5.4 (0.9) < 0.001 e
   - Social roles 8.6 (0.6) a 7.1 (1.4) b 5.1 (1.1) < 0.001 e
• Satisfaction scale (/5)     
   - Daily activities 4.2 (0.3) a 4.0 (0.4) b 3.5 (0.4) < 0.001 c
   - Social roles 4.2 (0.3) a 4.0 (0.4) b 3.6 (0.5) < 0.001 c
3. Environment (MQE)     
• Facilitators     
   - Physical (# of items;/40) 21.3 (8.1) f 25.3 (5.4) b 22.3 (5.1) 0.003 e
Weighted number 50.8 (22.0) 56.5 (12.1) b 49.2 (11.9) 0.009 e
   - Social (# of items;/69) 29.6 (7.8) 32.3 (6.2) 30.4 (6.4) 0.13c
Weighted number 67.3 (20.3) 68.8 (14.7) 66.6 (17.4) 0.77e
• Obstacles     
   - Physical (# of items;/40) 6.8 (3.9) a 9.0 (4.3) 10.9 (4.0) < 0.001 c
Weighted number 11.5 (8.3) a 17.0 (10.1) b 22.7 (10.6) < 0.001 e
   - Social (# of items;/69) 1.4 (1.3) 2.3 (3.3) 2.5 (3.0) 0.03 e
Weighted number 2.3 (2.4) d 4.5 (7.3) 4.8 (6.8) 0.009 e
  1. G1: SMAF < 5 G2: SMAF [5, 19] G3: SMAF > 19
  2. a : G1 differs significantly from the other two groups on these variables (p < 0.017).
  3. b : G2 differs significantly from G3 on these variables (p < 0.017).
  4. c : p value associated with ANOVA. A significant value (p < 0.05) indicates a difference between the three groups.
  5. d : G1 differs significantly only from G3 on these variables (p < 0.017).
  6. e : p value associated with Welch F-ratio. A significant value (p < 0.05) indicates a difference between the three groups.
  7. f : G1 differs significantly only from G2 on this variable (p < 0.017).
  8. QLI: Quality of Life Index (normal range = 23.0; SD = 4.0) Life-H: Assessment of Life Habits (normal range for daily activities = 8.1; SD = 0.5 and for social roles = 8.2; SD = 0.8) MQE: Measure of the Quality of the Environment