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Table 5 Paired t-test statistics for the VHI instrument. F, P, & E refer to Function, Physical, & Emotions subtests of the VHI, respectively.

From: Voice restoration following total laryngectomy by tracheoesophageal prosthesis: Effect on patients' quality of life and voice handicap in Jordan

  Paired Difference    
VHI pairs Mean Difference SD Standard Error of Mean 95% Confidence t df P
     Lower Upper    
F1 – F2 21.92 10.09 2.91 15.51 28.32 7.53 11 <0.001
P1 – P2 17.00 8.83 2.54 11.39 22.61 6.67 11 <0.001
E1 – E2 18.42 10.46 3.02 11.77 25.06 6.10 11 <0.001
VHI1 – VHI2 57.33 25.58 7.38 41.08 73.59 7.76 11 <0.001