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Table 3 Multivariable linear regression analyses of factors impacting EQ-5D scores in SHIELD baseline respondents*

From: EQ-5D visual analog scale and utility index values in individuals with diabetes and at risk for diabetes: Findings from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD)

Variables EQ-5D VAS score n = 14,383 EQ-5D index score n = 14,378
   Beta coefficient SE Beta coefficient SE
Diabetes risk group      
  Low risk 9.02† 0.45 0.049† 0.004
  High risk 3.18† 0.39 0.009† 0.004
  Type 2 diabetes (reference)   (reference)  
Age (yrs)      
  18–24 5.69† 0.94 0.052† 0.008
  25–34 0.39 0.63 0.011 0.006
  35–44 (reference)   (reference)  
  45–54 - 0.65 0.51 - 0.025† 0.005
  55–64 - 0.34 0.54 - 0.033† 0.005
  65–74 2.82† 0.58 - 0.011† 0.005
  ≥75 - 0.45 0.64 - 0.031† 0.006
Gender      
  Female - 1.16† 0.32 - 0.029† 0.003
  Male (reference)   (reference)  
Race      
  White (reference)   (reference)  
  Black 1.20† 0.59 0.014† 0.005
  Other - 1.66 0.96 - 0.015 0.009
Household Income ($) per year      
  <22,500 - 13.03† 0.49 - 0.121† 0.004
  22,500–39,999 - 6.68† 0.49 - 0.066† 0.004
  40,000–59,999 - 3.62† 0.50 - 0.037† 0.004
  60,000–89,999 - 1.71† 0.49 - 0.020† 0.004
  ≥90,000 (reference)   (reference)  
Geographic region      
  Northeast 2.70† 0.80 0.029† 0.007
  Middle Atlantic 2.34† 0.58 0.026† 0.005
  East North Central 2.28† 0.56 0.021† 0.005
  West North Central 2.58† 0.70 0.023† 0.006
  South Atlantic 1.87† 0.54 0.015† 0.005
  East South Central 0.42 0.73 - 0.002 0.007
  West South Central 1.75† 0.63 0.014† 0.006
  Mountain 1.03 0.74 0.011 0.007
  Pacific (reference)   (reference)  
Household size (no. of members)      
  1 (reference)   (reference)  
  2 - 0.77 0.43 - 0.009† 0.004
  3 - 1.68† 0.53 - 0.018† 0.005
  4 - 1.05 0.59 - 0.010† 0.005
  ≥5 - 2.52† 0.64 - 0.022† 0.006
Body mass index (kg/m2) group      
  Underweight - 3.12† 1.43 - 0.017 0.013
  Normal weight (reference)   (reference)  
  Overweight - 1.33† 0.46 - 0.007 0.004
  Obese - 6.57† 0.47 - 0.047† 0.004
  1. *Scores indicate change from reference group. †p < 0.05 versus reference group
  2. EQ-5D = EuroQoL-5 Dimensions; VAS = visual analog scale; SE = standard error