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Table 1 Health State Descriptions for the TTO

From: Impact of schizophrenia and schizophrenia treatment-related adverse events on quality of life: direct utility elicitation

Health State Description
Stable schizophrenia – No side-effects Base-Case Stable Conditiona
  • I am in my mid-30's, living alone with no dependants.
  • My condition puts some limits on my daily life including the necessity to take regular medication. I have no problems with self-care and am able to complete household chores, but I don't meet too many new people.
  • I am able to work at a part-time paid or voluntary job.
  • Sometimes I hear things that no one else hears. I think someone is calling my name but when I turn around, no one is there. The things they say aren't scary, like when I was really sick, they are just calling my name.
  • Sometimes it feels like there are other people in my house that shouldn't be there, or that people go through my things without asking. I don't think about this most of the time though.
  No consequences from the treatment
Weight gain side-effect Base-Case Stable Condition plus
  Consequences from the treatment:
  • In the last six months I have gained more than a stone in weight and it makes me pretty depressed as I find it very hard to lose weight by diet and exercise.
  • The extra weight has restricted my mobility and breathing and made some of my clothes too tight.
  • I am worried about my weight gain because I have heard that that this might cause diabetes, heart problems and make me lose a year or two off my life expectancy.
Diabetes side-effect Base-Case Stable Condition plus
  Consequences from the treatment:
  • Since taking treatment I have been diagnosed with diabetes – my doctor says that it may be due to my treatment.
  • I have started to feel tired and need to urinate more often. I also seem to feel nauseous and get sick more often.
  • My doctor told me to change my eating habits so I have a more balanced diet, as well as drinking a maximum of two alcoholic drinks per day and taking my oral medication – otherwise the diabetes could get worse.
  • The doctors are also telling me to exercise a lot more than before. I need to always make sure that I have my medicine and something sweet with me in case I get dizzy or faint.
  • I need to test my blood sugar levels every day by pricking my finger with a pin and putting the blood on a paper strip.
  • My doctor told me about research showing people with diabetes might lose more than five years off life expectancy
Hyperprolactinemia side-effect (Male) Base-Case Stable Condition plus
  Consequences from the treatment
  • I feel less interested in sex and when I do have sex, it is not as good as it was before I started treatment
  • My doctor tells me that there is also a good chance that my breasts will be bigger than other men's and that a little milk might sometimes come from them.
Hyperprolactinemia side-effect (Female) Base-Case Stable Condition plus
  Consequences from the treatment
  • I feel less interested in sex and when I do have sex, it is not as good as it was before I started treatment
  • My doctor tells me that taking the treatment may make my periods not come when I think they will. The doctor also tells me that I might also have a little milk flow from my nipple when it shouldn't.
EPS side-effect Base-Case Stable Condition plus
  Consequences from the treatment
  • Since I started treatment it seems as though I don't have full control over my muscles.
  • Often I feel that my muscles are quivering and I just can't seem to sit still, while other times it actually feels at though my muscles are undergoing spasms.
  • Other times it seems as though my body is moving when I don't want it to, and I do things like thrusting my tongue, marching up and down on the spot and humming.
  • Sometimes people say that I shuffle rather than walk, and that my face doesn't show any emotion.
Relapse • My condition has forced me to go back to hospital for treatment, and not many people come to see me – not that I want to see anyone
  • It depresses me that I seem to have gone back to where I started before treatment, it seems as though there was no point in taking all those medicines
  • I am not able to work at the moment and I am worried that my employer will not want me back
  • I hear people calling me names and telling me to do things, just like I did when I was really sick
  • It feels like the other people in the hospital are watching me, and talking about me behind my back.
  1. a Base-Case Stable condition refers to a Typical patient with stable schizophrenia