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Table 3 Item content, mean scores and distribution of responses to individual items comparing insulin-naïve versus insulin treated participants and mean subscale and total ITAS scores. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

From: Development and validation of the insulin treatment appraisal scale (ITAS) in patients with type 2 diabetes

  Insulin naïve (n = 146) Insulin-treated (n = 136)
  Mean (SD) agree or strongly agree Mean (SD) agree or strongly agree
1. Insulin signifies failure with pre-insulin therapy 3.4 ± 1.4 54% 2.5 ± 1.4*** 27%***
2. Insulin signifies diabetes has worsened 3.9 ± 1.6 73% 2.8 ± 1.3*** 37%***
3. Insulin will improve prognosis 3.8 ± 1.1 62% 4.2 ± 1.0*** 82%***
4. Insulin will make others perceive greater sickness 3.2 ± 1.3 41% 2.5 ± 1.2*** 20%***
5. Insulin will make life less flexible 3.8 ± 1.1 70% 2.9 ± 1.3*** 40%***
6. Fear of needle injection 3.1 ± 1.5 47% 1.4 ± 1.0*** 6%***
7. Insulin will increase the risk of hypoglycaemia 3.1 ± 1.1 52% 3.0 ± 1.3*** 40%***
8. Insulin will improve health 3.6 ± 1.0 53% 4.0 ± 1.0*** 78%***
9. Insulin will cause weight gain 3.1 ± 0.9 23% 3.6 ± 1.3*** 54%***
10. Insulin will be demanding to administer 3.6 ± 1.1 61% 2.7 ± 1.2*** 28%***
11. Insulin means I have to give up activities I enjoy 2.6 ± 1.1 19% 1.9 ± 1.1*** 10%***
12. Insulin means my health will deteriorate 2.7 ± 1.1 23% 2.2 ± 1.1*** 13%***
13. Injecting insulin is embarrassing 2.6 ± 1.3 23% 1.8 ± 1.3*** 10%***
14. Injecting insulin is painful. 3.3 ± 1.2 43% 2.7 ± 1.3*** 38%**
15. It is difficult to always inject insulin correctly 3.2 ± 1.2 40% 2.3 ± 1.3*** 26%***
16. Insulin makes it difficult to fulfil my responsibilities 2.9 ± 1.2 27% 1.9 ± 1.1*** 9%***
17. Insulin helps to maintain good control of blood glucose 3.7 ± 1.0 59% 4.0 ± 1.1* 73%***
18. Using insulin causes family/friends to be more concerned 3.5 ± 1.1 55% 3.1 ± 1.3*** 46%**
19. Insulin helps to improve my energy levels 3.2 ± 0.7 25% 3.1 ± 1.1 NS 35%***
20. Insulin makes me more dependent on my doctor 3.4 ± 1.1 40% 3.0 ± 1.2*** 35%***
Mean Total Negative items ITAS 55.5 ± 12.7   44.1 ± 10.0***  
Mean Total Positive items ITAS 14.3 ± 2.9   15.2 ± 2.8*  
Mean Total ITAS (sum score 20 items, 4 negative recoded) 61.6 ± 12.8   48.9 ± 11.2***