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Table 1 Self-reported demographic and clinical characteristics of the insulin naïve and insulin treated participants. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001

From: Development and validation of the insulin treatment appraisal scale (ITAS) in patients with type 2 diabetes

  Insulin naïve Insulin-treated
n (%) 146 (52%) 136 (48%)
Male sex 46% (67/146) 46% (63/136)
Living alone 31% (45/146) 24% (32/136)
White (Caucasian) 94% (135/144) 90% (120/133)
Age (years)   
   30–49 19% (27/146) 27% (37/136)
   50–64 38% (55/146) 34% (46/136)
   65 or older 44% (64/146) 39% (53/136)
BMI 33 ± 7 36 ± 9 **
Highest education   
   < high school 3% (4/146) 2% (2/136)
   High school/GED 49% (72/146) 52% (70/136)
   College degree 33% (48/146) 32% (43/136)
   ≥ Graduate degree 15% (22/146) 15% (21/136)
Treatment for type 2 diabetes   
   oral medication 94% (137/146) 56% (76/136)***
   insulin pump - 2% (3/136)
HbA1c 6.5 ± 2.1 (n = 38) 6.9 ± 1.6 (n = 53)
Duration of diabetes (years) 4.2 ± 1.2 5.3 ± 0.8
Diabetes complications   
   Retinopathy 21% (30/146) 36% (49/136)**
   Cardiovascular 47% (68/146) 57% (77/136)
   Nephropathy 7% (10/146) 11% (15/136)
   Neuropathy 21% (31/146) 40% (55/136)***
Mean PAID total score 22 ± 22 30 ± 23 ***
Mean WHO-5 19 ± 5 18 ± 6**