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Table 3 CD4 and Viral Load Adjusted Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs) for Emergency Department Visit Rate in Poisson Models

From: EuroQol (EQ-5D) measure of quality of life predicts mortality, emergency department utilization, and hospital discharge rates in HIV-infected adults under care

Measure1 Adjusted3
  IRR 95% CI p-value
1. Mobility    <0.001
No problems 1.0   
Some problems 2.0 1.7–2.3 <0.001
Confined to bed 1.0 0.6–1.8 0.90
2. Self-Care    <0.001
No problems 1.0   
Some problems 1.9 1.6–2.2 <0.001
Unable to wash or dress 1.2 0.7–1.9 0.56
3. Usual Activities    <0.001
No problems 1.0   
Some problems 1.8 1.5–2.1 <0.001
Unable to perform 1.9 1.5–2.6 <0.001
4. Pain/Discomfort    <0.001
None 1.0   
Moderate 1.7 1.5–2.1 <0.001
Extreme 2.7 2.2–3.4 <0.001
5. Anxiety/Depression    <0.001
None 1.0   
Moderate 1.6 1.4–1.9 <0.001
Extreme 2.0 1.6–2.5 <0.001
VAS 2 (per 10 units) 0.86 0.83–0.89 <0.001
pVAS (per 10 units) 0.79 0.75–0.82 <0.001
Health change    <0.001
Better 1.0   
Much the same 1.1 0.9–1.3 0.30
Worse 1.9 1.5–2.3 <0.001
  1. 1. Items 1–5 (Mobility, Self Care, Usual Activities, Pain/Discomfort, Anxiety/Depression) are EQ-5D health states. Health change is not part of EQ-5D. EQ-5D health states, VAS, health change, CD4 category, and HIV-1 plasma viral load are modelled as time-varying covariates.
  2. 2. EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale (VAS) rating of global health status (0–100); pVAS (predicted VAS; see Methods)
  3. 3. Each covariate is adjusted only for CD4 category (<50, 50–199, ≥200) and plasma HIV-1 viral load (<1,000, ≥1,000 copies), not for the other listed health status items. CD4 category and plasma HIV-1 viral load are modelled as time-varying covariates.