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Table 4 Mean (M) for observed scores (O) and population norms (P) and differences (D) between the observed scores and population norms for the EORTC QLQ C-30 scales and single items at T1–T4

From: Health related quality of life and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours. A longitudinal, prospective, and comparative study

  T1 T2 T3 T4
  O P D O P D O P D O P D
  M M D M M D M M D M M D
PFa 80 87 -7 80 87 -7 81 87 -6 79 87 -8
RFa 53 85 -32** 64 85 -21** 69 85 -16* 69 85 -16
EFa 77 83 -6 75 83 -8 75 83 -8 82 83 -1
CFa 85 88 -3 85 88 -3 83 88 -5 84 88 -4
SFa 77 91 -14* 80 91 -11 80 91 -11 79 91 -12
QLa 58 76 -18** 61 76 -15** 58 76 -18** 58 76 -18**
FAb 35 21 14* 38 21 17** 35 21 14** 34 21 13*
NVb 3 3 0 10 3 7 6 3 3 7 3 4
Pb 20 20 0 23 20 3 27 20 7 21 20 1
DYb 27 17 10 22 17 5 30 17 13 29 17 12
SLb 18 19 -1 11 19 -8 13 19 -6 18 19 -1
APb 10 4 6 18 4 14* 8 4 4 13 4 9
COb 9 6 3 13 6 7 10 6 4 9 6 3
DIb 25 5 20* 21 5 16* 23 5 18* 30 5 25**
FIb 14 8 6 15 8 7 12 8 4 14 8 6
  1. PF = Physical function, RF = Role function, CF = Cognitive function, EF = Emotional function, SF = Social function, QL = Global quality of life, FA = Fatigue, NV = Nausea/vomiting, P = Pain, DY = Dyspnoea, SL = Sleep disturbances, AP = Appetite loss, CO = Constipation, DI = Diarrhoea, FI = Perceived financial impact, A = Anxiety, D = Depression
  2. a Scores range from 0 to 100, a higher score represents a higher level of function.
  3. b Scores range from 0 to 100, a higher score represents a higher level of symptoms.
  4. * p < .01, ** p < .001