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Table 1 Characteristics of each factor model tested

From: Structural ambiguity of the Chinese version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in patients with coronary heart disease

Model Number of factors Clinical population n Factor extraction method #
Zigmond and Snaith (1983) 2 Medical 100 No factor analysis
Moorey et al. (1991) 2 Cancer 568 PCA
Dunbar et al. (2000) 3 Non-clinical 2,547+ CFA
Friedman et al. (2001)* 3 Depressed 2,669 PCA
Razavi et al. (1990) 1 Cancer 210 PCA
Caci et al. (2003)** 3 Non-clinical 195 CFA
  FLI1** FLI2 FLI3  
Zigmond and Snaith (1983) 1,3,5,7,9,11,13 2,4,6,8,10,12,14 ---------  
Moorey et al. (1991) 1,3,5,9,11,13 2,4,6,7,8,10,12,14 ---------  
Dunbar et al. (2000) 1,5,7,11 2,4,6,7,8,10,12,14   
Friedman et al. (2001)* 1,7,11 2,4,6,8,10,12,14 3,5,9,13  
Razavi et al. (1990) All items --------- ---------  
Caci et al. (2003)** 1,3,5,9,13 2,4,6,8,10,12 7,11,14  
  1. *The three-factors are correlated in this model. ** Two models based on Caci et al. are tested, the second model removing item 10. +Based on CFA of three independent samples of N = 894, 829 and 824, the total cohort in this study is 2,547. #PCA: Principal Components Analysis; CFA: Confirmatory Factor Analysis. **FLI: Factor Loading Items. The HADS items loading on each model tested.