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Table 2 Multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) model to assess the effect of high HbF response on QOL. The effect of independent variables (rows) on each outcome measure (columns) at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months during randomized treatment to hydroxyurea or placebo is shown. The dependent variables are: SF-36 Health Status Survey variables (as a percent scores), Mood Profile, Ladder of Life.

From: Hydroxyurea and sickle cell anemia: effect on quality of life

Independent Variables quality of life Outcome Variables (each column is one model per outcome)
  General Health Now Physical Functioning Social Functioning Role-Physical Role-Mental Mental Health Energy-Fatigue
High Response 0.0008 NS* 0.007 NS NS NS NS
Baseline QOL Value <0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Baseline Daily Pain 0–3, 4–6, 7–9 <0.0001 NS <0.0001 <0.0001 0.008 0.002 0.002
Baseline Fetal Hemoglobin <0. 5 vs > 0. 5 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
Baseline Annual Crisis Rate <6 vs ≥ 6 0.002 NS NS 0.0005 NS NS NS
  Pain Recall (4-week) General Health Perception Tension-Anxiety Depression-Dejection Vigor Fatigue Ladder of Life
High Response 0.0006 0.002 NS NS NS NS NS
Baseline QOL Value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 < 0.0001
Baseline Daily Pain 0–3, 4–6, 7–9 < 0.0001 NS 0.001 <0.0001 NS 0.0004 0.007
Baseline Fetal Hemoglobin <0. 5 vs > 0. 5 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
Baseline Annual Crisis Rate <6 vs ≥ 6 <0.0001 0.003 NS NS 0.004 NS 0.008
  1. * NS = p > .01