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Table 2 Responses to the EQ-5D and SF-12 by socio-demographic characteristics.

From: Assessing the construct validity of the Italian version of the EQ-5D: preliminary results from a cross-sectional study in North Italy

Variable % Reporting a problem (moderate or severe) for categorical variables or mean value for numeric variables.
  PCS MCS Mobility Self-care Usual activities Pain/discomfort Anxiety/depression EQ-5D index EQ-5D vas
Total sample 48.4 47.7 13.6 5.8 14.1 45.4 39.3 0.8 77.0
Age α * ** * * * * * * *
   18–24 50.3 48.5 4.3 3.2 4.3 30.1 44.1 0.8 81
   25–34 50.8 47.7 7.6 3.8 10.3 40.2 38.3 0.8 80
   35–44 50.3 48.5 10.4 5.4 10.3 42.6 32.0 0.8 79
   45–54 49.2 48.0 7.3 2.4 9.7 45.7 40.0 0.8 80
   55–64 48.2 47.6 14.7 6.7 17.6 53.6 50.7 0.8 76
   65–74 46.1 47.4 21.2 2.6 18.2 59.6 44.7 0.8 74
   > 75 42.4 45.3 40.0 21.8 37.3 67.3 53.3 0.7 68
Gender β * ** * * * * * * *
   Male 50.0 49.5 9.6 4.3 10.1 40.8 31.9 0.8 80
   Female 46.8 45.8 19.2 8.0 19.8 56.2 51.9 0.8 75
Occupation δ * * * * * * *   
   1 54.6 42.5 4.0 0 8.0 32.0 48.0 0.9 75
   2 43.7 46.2 29.3 13.2 26.6 64.6 52.5 0.7 70
   3 50.3 50.3 4 1.1 7.0 43.0 37.1 0.9 82
   4 43.7 45.1 21.0 20.7 19.1 16.8 16.5 0.7 70
   5 53.9 46.5 0.5 - 1.0 1.3 2.4 0.9 85
   6 42.5 46.6 64.9 71.3 56.9 39.1 34.5 0.7 67
   7 54.4 42.5 0.5 - 1.0 1.2 2.0 0.9 75
>Educational level γ * * * * * * * * *
   < 5 years 36.8 41.4 50.0 29.8 48.9 87.5 60.4 0.55 60.7
   5 years 43.3 46.5 30.9 12.8 27.6 65.1 49.5 0.72 68.7
   8 years 49.4 48.5 8.2 3.3 11.5 49.2 45.4 0.82 79.2
   13 years 51.8 48.4 4.2 1.5 5.8 33.3 32.4 0.88 82.6
   > 13 years 52.9 48.1 2.0 1.0 2.9 32.7 38.2 0.88 83.2
Marital status          
   Singleγ 52.5* 49.0 6.6* 5.6** 11.0** 15.7* 19.2** 0.88* 82.9*
   Marriedγ 48.0 47.6 60.2 52.8 60.7 67.8* 65.5* 0.81 77.0
   Widowedγ 39.1* 44.3** 31.3** 39.3** 26.5** 14.6** 13.0 0.61* 63.2*
   Divorcedγ 51.5** 47.7 1.9 2.2 1.8 2.0 2.3 0.80 81.2
  1. αadjusted for gender; βadjusted for age; γadjusted for age and gender; *p <0.001 **p <0.05
  2. δ1 = manager, director, business-man; 2 = public employee; 3 = labor, 4 = house keeping, 5 = student, 6 = retiree, 7 = unemployed.