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Table 1 Items in the M-NCAS

From: Psychometric performance of an assessment scale for strain in nursing care: The M-NCAS

   Attitude Strain
  Description Mean (SD) Floor (N, %) Ceiling (N, %) Mean (SD) Floor (N, %) Ceiling (N, %)
Item 1R Seems to behave in a completely aimless way 3.16 (1.08) 1 (45, 15.96%) 4 (144, 51.06%) 2.64 (0.93) 1 (39, 13.83%) 4 (50, 17.73%)
Item 2R Is anxious 3.3 (0.97) 1 (28, 9.93%) 4 (160, 56.74%) 2.79 (0.88) 1 (26, 13.83%) 4 (59, 20.92)
Item 3R Is unpredictable 3.2 (1.1) 1 (50, 50.0%) 4 (169, 59.9%) 2.86 (0.92) 1 (26, 9.22%) 4 (74, 26.24%)
Item 4 Does things for a reason 2.86 (1.19) 1 (56, 45.0%) 4 (127, 45.0%) 2.57 (0.96) 1 (49, 17.38%) 4 (47, 16.67%)
Item 5 1 Tries to influence others in order to maintain control of his/her own life 2.904 (1.3) 1 (74, 26.24%) 4 (154, 54.6%) 2.22 (1.06) 1 (92, 32.62%) 4 (41, 14.54%)
Item 6 Is calm 3.17 (1.04) 1 (13, 4.61%) 4 (165, 58.5%) 2.76 (0.92) 1 (28, 9.93%) 4 (64, 22.70%)
Item 7R Is apathetic/seems to have limited emotions 2.54 (1.32) 1 (109, 38.65%) 4 (101, 35.82%) 2.48 (0.92) 1 (47, 16.67%) 4 (37, 13.12%)
Item 8R Is selfish 2.40 (1.32) 1 (116, 41.41%) 4 (94, 33.33%) 2.32 (0.99) 1 (69, 24.47%) 4 (39, 13.83%)
Item 9 Is rewarding to work with 2.37 (1.20) 1 (87, 30.85%) 4 (82, 29.08%) 2.55 (0.97) 1 (46, 16.31%) 4 (51, 18.09%)
Item 10 Is grateful for what is done for him/her 2.49 (1.18) 1 (71, 25.18%) 4 (89, 31.56%) 2.30 (0.94) 1 (61, 21.63%) 4 (33, 11.70%)
Item 11R Is paranoid 2.40 (1.29) 1 (111, 39.36%) 4 (89, 31.56%) 2.43 (1.04) 1 (65, 23.05%) 4 (52, 18.44%)
Item 12 R Submissive/gives in to everything done to him/her 1.47 (0.93) 1 (222, 78.72%) 4 (15, 5.32%) 2.97 (0.89) 1 (20, 7.09%) 4 (88, 31.21%)
Item 13R Is attention seeking 2.57 (1.31) 1 (101, 38.82%) 4 (105, 37.23) 2.48 (1.00) 1 (56, 19.86%) 4 49, 17.38%)
Item 14R Is manipulative 1.97 (1.21) 1 (158, 56.03%) 4 (51, 18.09) 2.16 (0.96) 1 (82, 29.08%) 4 (29, 10.28%)
Item 15R Is ungrateful for the care he/she receives 2.23 (1.18) 1 (113, 40.07%) 4 (57, 20.21%) 2.30 (0.96) 1 (66, 23.40%) 4 (35, 12.41%)
Item 16R Is frightened/vulnerable 2.77 (1.18) 1 (72, 25.53%) 4 (109, 38.65%) 2.56 (0.90) 1 (38, 13.48%) 4 (41, 14.54%)
Item 17R Is lonely 2.76 (1.20) 1 (65, 23.05%) 4 (112, 39.72%) 2.49 (0.87) 1 (40, 14.18%) 4 (32, 11.35%)
Item 18R Has to concentrate exclusively on his/her needs in order to survive 2.36 (1.30) 1 (115, 40.93%) 4 (90, 32.03%) 2.40 (0.96) 1 (58, 20.64%) 4 (38, 13.52%)
Item 19 R Has little control over his/her difficult behavior 3.59 (1.30) 1 (14, 4.97%) 4 (214, 75.89%) 3.16 (0.77) 1 (10, 3.55%) 4 (100, 35.46%)
Item 20R Is deliberately difficult 2.06 (1.17) 1 (138, 48.94%) 4 (46, 16.31%) 2.58 (1.00) 1 (52, 18.44%) 4 (53, 18.79%)
Item 21 Tries to maintain some independence 2.33 (1.27) 1 (108, 38.30%) 4 (89, 31.56%) 2.56 (0.83) 1 (34, 12.06%) 4 (29, 10.28%)
Item 22 Knows what he/she wants and stands up for his/herself 2.30 (1.25) 1 (103, 36.53%) 4 (86, 30.50%) 2.79 (0.85) 1 (28, 9.93%) 4 (51, 18.09%)
Item 23 Seems to experience the normal range of emotions 2.83 (1.24) 1 (63, 22.34%) 4 (134, 47.52%) 2.59 (0.83) 1 (30, 10.64%) 4 (33, 11.70%)
Item 24 Friendly 2.05 (1.03) 1 (94, 33.33%) 4 (48, 17.02%) 2.21 (0.84) 1 (58, 20.57%) 4 (17, 6.03%)
Item 25R Needs someone close by all the time/is demanding 2.57 (1.31) 1 (104, 36.88%) 4 (101, 35.82%) 2.58 (0.96) 1 (43, 15.25%) 4 (53, 18.79%)
Item 26R Has an empty life 2.81 (1.17) 1 (60, 21.28%) 4 (110, 39.01%) 2.56 (0.92) 1 (41, 14.54%) 4 (42, 14.89%)
Item 27 R Has patterns of behavior you can foresee 3.00 (1.12) 1 (53, 18.79%) 4 (125, 44.33%) 2.75 (0.85) 1 (24, 8.51%) 4 (50, 17.73%)
Item 28R Is stubborn/resistive 3.68 (0.71) 1 (12, 4.26%) 4 (218, 77.31%) 3.22 (0.78) 1 (12, 4.26%) 4 (113, 40.07%)
Item 29R Is aggressive/ hostile 3.44 (0.91) 1 (26, 9.22%) 4 (181, 64.18%) 3.18 (0.84) 1 (16, 5.67%) 4 (113, 40.07%)
Item 30 Has a meaningful life 3.17 (1.00) 1 (25, 8.87%) 4 (145, 53.19%) 2.59 (0.86) 1 (32, 11.35%) 4 (38, 13.48%)
Item 31 Compliant/voluntarily co-operative 3.10 (1.01) 1 (9, 3.19%) 4 (150, 53.19%) 2.87 (0.80) 1 (16, 5.67%) 4 (58, 20.57%)
Item 32R Gives no job satisfaction 2.49 (0.91) 1 (43, 15.25%) 4 (37, 13.12%) 2.49 (0.91) 1 (43, 15.25%) 4 (37, 13.12%)
  1. 1 Italics indicate items deleted from instrument in subsequent analyses. R Item is reverse-coded for the attitude total and subscale scores. Attitude ranges from 1 (agree) to 4 (don't agree) and Strain ranges from 1 (very easy) to 4 (very difficult) Lower scores are considered better for both dimensions.