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Table 1 Mean number of days U.S. adults felt sad, blue or depressed (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)*

From: Sad, blue, or depressed days, health behaviors and health-related quality of life, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1995–2000

  Males Females Males & Females
  N Mean 95% CI N Mean 95% CI N Mean 95% CI
Demographic, behavioral risk group variable
5 year age group          
18–19 yrs. 1,704 2.8 2.4–3.2 1,914 4.5 4.0–5.0 3,618 3.6 3.2–3.9
20–24 yrs. 4,899 2.8 2.5–3.0 6,697 4.0 3.7–4.2 11,596 3.4 3.2–3.6
25–29 yrs 6,439 2.4 2.2–2.6 8,881 3.4 3.2–3.6 15,320 2.9 2.7–3.1
30–34 yrs. 7,163 2.2 2.0–2.4 10,016 3.6 3.4–3.8 17,179 2.9 2.7–3.0
35–39 yrs. 7,763 2.5 2.3–2.6 11,061 3.9 3.7–4.1 18,824 3.2 3.0–3.3
40–44 yrs. 7,589 2.6 2.4–2.8 10,430 3.7 3.5–3.9 18,019 3.2 3.0–3.3
45–49 yrs. 6,729 2.7 2.5–2.9 9,297 3.8 3.5–4.0 16,026 3.2 3.0–3.4
50–54 yrs. 5,722 2.6 2.4–2.9 7,986 3.8 3.5–4.1 13,708 3.2 3.0–3.4
55–59 yrs. 4,525 2.2 1.9–2.4 6,424 3.6 3.3–3.9 10,949 3.0 2.7–3.2
60–64 yrs. 3,806 2.2 1.9–2.6 5,489 3.2 2.9–3.4 9,295 2.7 2.5–2.9
65–69 yrs. 3,733 1.8 1.6–2.1 5,905 2.6 2.4–2.9 9,638 2.3 2.1–2.5
70–74 yrs. 3,232 1.9 1.6–2.2 5,629 2.8 2.5–3.1 8,861 2.4 2.2–2.6
75–79 yrs. 2,287 2.2 1.8–2.5 4,627 2.8 2.5–3.1 6,914 2.5 2.3–2.8
80–84 yrs. 1,270 2.3 1.8–2.8 2,949 2.6 2.3–3.0 4,219 2.5 2.2–2.8
85+ yrs. 616 2.4 1.7–3.1 1,782 3.1 2.6–3.7 2,398 2.9 2.4–3.4
All categories 67,477 2.4 2.2–2.5 99,087 3.5 3.4–3.6 166,564 3.0 2.9–3.1
Race/ethnicity          
Asian/Pacific          
Islander 1,098 1.6 1.2–2.0 1,216 2.5 2.0–2.9 2,314 2.0 1.7–2.3
White 54,502 2.3 2.2–2.4 77,761 3.3 3.3–3.4 132,263 2.8 2.7–2.9
Hispanic 4,395 2.9 2.5–3.2 6,455 4.3 3.9–4.6 10,850 3.6 3.3–3.8
Black 5,852 2.9 2.7–3.2 11,463 4.5 4.2–4.7 17,315 3.8 3.6–4.0
Native American          
Indian/Alaska          
Native 679 3.0 2.3–3.7 956 5.0 4.1–5.9 1,635 4.0 3.4–4.6
Other 431 3.0 2.0–4.0 538 5.2 4.0–6.4 969 4.2 3.2–5.1
All categories 66,526 2.4 2.3–2.5 97,851 3.6 3.4–3.7 165,346 3.0 2.9–3.1
Education          
< High school 7,772 3.7 3.4–4.0 12,468 5.6 5.3–5.9 20,240 4.7 4.5–4.9
HS graduate 20,727 2.6 2.4–2.7 32,902 3.8 3.7–3.9 53,629 3.2 3.1–3.3
Some college 17,770 2.4 2.2–2.5 27,700 3.4 3.3–3.5 45,470 2.9 2.8–3.0
College graduate 21,068 1.7 1.6–1.8 25,826 2.4 2.3–2.5 46,894 2.0 1.9–2.1
All categories 67,337 2.4 2.3–2.5 98,896 3.6 3.5–3.7 166,233 3.0 2.9–3.1
Employment          
Employed (wages) 41,465 1.9 1.8–2.0 51,567 2.9 2.8–3.1 93,032 2.4 2.3–2.5
Self-employed 7,497 2.3 2.0–2.5 5,354 3.0 2.7–3.3 12,851 2.5 2.3–2.7
Retired 12,054 3.6 2.4–4.9 19,880 2.4 1.5–3.2 31,934 3.0 2.0–4.0
Student 1,997 2.0 1.6–2.4 3,019 3.8 3.1–4.5 5,016 3.3 2.7–3.9
Homemaker 168 2.7 1.6–3.9 11,549 3.5 3.3–3.8 11,717 3.5 3.3–3.7
Unemp. < 1 yr. 1,238 4.5 3.9–5.1 2,094 6.4 5.5–7.3 3,332 5.7 4.9–6.5
Unemp. ≥1 yr. 766 5.3 4.4–6.2 1,657 6.3 5.6–7.0 2,423 6.1 5.5–6.7
Unable to work 2,225 9.6 8.5–10.6 3,878 10.7 10.0–11.5 6,103 10.2 9.5–10.8
All categories 67,410 2.4 2.3–2.5 98,998 3.6 3.5–3.7 166,408 3.0 2.9–3.1
Income          
<$15,000 5,194 5.4 5.0–5.8 13,012 6.5 6.2–6.8 18,206 6.1 5.8–6.3
$15,000–$24,999 10,765 3.3 3.1–3.4 18,662 4.5 4.3–4.7 29,427 3.9 3.8–4.0
$25,000–$49,999 23,046 2.2 2.1–2.4 29,419 3.2 3.0–3.3 52,465 2.7 2.6–2.8
≥$50,000 20,046 1.7 1.6–1.8 21,382 2.4 2.3–2.6 41,428 2.0 1.9–2.1
All categories 59,051 2.5 2.4–2.6 82,475 3.6 3.5–3.7 141,526 3.0 2.9–3.1
Marital status          
Currently married 38,756 2.1 1.8–2.3 49,671 3.0 2.8–3.1 88,427 2.5 2.4–2.6
Never married 14,429 3.0 2.8–3.2 15,847 3.6 3.3–3.8 30,276 3.3 3.1–3.4
Divorced 8,060 3.6 3.1–4.2 13,600 5.0 4.7–5.2 21,660 4.4 4.1–4.8
Unmarried couple 1,536 3.8 2.6–5.0 2,008 4.7 3.7–5.6 3,544 4.5 3.6–5.5
Widowed 2,980 4.2 3.4–5.0 14,562 6.6 5.5–7.7 17,542 6.0 5.1–6.9
Separated 1,609 5.4 4.6–6.1 3,164 6.3 5.7–6.9 4,773 6.0 5.5–6.5
All categories 67,370 2.4 2.3–2.5 98,852 3.6 3.5–3.6 166,222 3.0 2.9–3.1
Participate in any physical activity          
Yes 36,039 2.1 2.0–2.2 49,472 3.1 3.0–3.2 85,511 2.6 2.5–2.7
No 13,388 3.1 3.0–3.3 22,607 4.6 4.4–4.8 35,995 3.9 3.8–4.1
All categories 49,427 2.4 2.3–2.5 72,079 3.6 3.5–3.7 121,506 3.0 2.9–3.1
Body mass index          
Underweight 608 4.6 3.6–5.6 3,192 4.5 4.0–5.0 3,800 4.5 4.1–5.0
Normal 23,561 2.5 2.4–2.6 47,187 3.0 2.9–3.1 70,748 2.8 2.7–2.9
Overweight 30,305 2.1 2.0–2.2 25,987 3.8 3.6–3.9 56,292 2.7 2.6–2.8
Obese 12,295 2.8 2.6–2.9 17,031 5.0 4.7–5.2 29,326 3.8 3.7–4.0
All categories 66,769 2.4 2.3–2.5 93,397 3.6 3.5–3.7 160,166 3.0 3.0–3.1
Ever drank ≥ 5 drinks in past 30 days at once          
Yes 6,403 2.6 2.4–2.9 2,968 5.0 4.4–5.5 9,371 3.3 2.9–3.6
No 18,206 2.2 2.0–2.3 29,554 3.3 3.2–3.4 47,760 2.8 2.7–2.9
All categories 24,609 2.3 2.2–2.4 32,522 3.4 3.3–3.5 57,131 2.8 2.7.2.9
Smoking status          
Never smoked 31,088 1.9 1.8–2.0 57,611 3.0 2.9–3.1 88,699 2.6 2.4–2.7
Former smoker 18,973 2.2 2.1–2.4 19,639 3.5 3.4–3.7 38,612 2.9 2.8–3.0
Smokes <1 pack/day 7,112 3.1 2.8–3.3 11,357 5.0 4.7–5.2 18,469 4.1 3.9–4.3
Smokes ≥1 pack/day 8,751 4.2 3.8–4.6 8,688 6.1 5.7–6.4 17,439 5.0 4.7–5.2
All categories 65,924 2.4 2.3–2.5 97,295 3.6 3.4–3.7 163,219 3.0 2.9–3.1
Seatbelt use          
Always 7,960 2.2 2.0–2.4 13,769 3.1 2.9–3.2 21,729 2.7 2.6–2.8
Nearly always 2,142 2.0 1.7–2.3 2,469 3.5 3.1–3.9 4,611 2.7 2.4–2.9
Sometimes 1,287 2.8 2.4–3.3 1,291 4.4 3.8–4.9 2,578 3.5 3.1–3.8
Seldom 698 3.1 2.4–3.8 578 5.5 4.5–6.4 1,276 3.9 3.4–4.5
Never 901 4.0 3.3–4.7 639 6.1 5.0–7.1 1,540 4.7 4.1–5.3
All categories 12,988 2.4 2.3–2.5 18,746 3.4 3.2–3.5 31,734 2.9 2.8–3.0
Time when could not afford to get medical care in past year          
Yes 5,629 5.4 5.0–5.7 11,867 6.8 6.5–7.1 17,496 6.2 6.0–6.5
No 61,740 2.1 2.0–2.2 87,069 3.1 3.0–3.2 148,809 2.6 2.5–2.7
All categories 67,369 2.4 2.3–2.5 98,936 3.6 3.4–3.7 166,305 3.0 2.9–3.1
Have any kind of health plan?          
Yes 58,645 2.2 2.1–2.3 87,693 3.3 3.2–3.4 146,338 2.8 2.7–2.9
No 8,657 3.7 3.4–4.1 11,236 5.1 4.7–5.4 19,893 4.4 4.1–4.6
All categories 67,302 2.4 2.3–2.6 98,929 3.6 3.4–3.7 166,231 3.0 2.9–3.1
Self-rated health          
Excellent 16,485 1.4 1.3–1.5 22,518 1.9 1.8–2.0 39,003 1.6 1.5–1.7
Very good 22,980 1.7 1.6–1.8 33,099 2.7 2.6–2.8 56,079 2.2 2.1–2.3
Good 18,980 2.5 2.3–2.6 28,081 3.9 3.7–4.0 47,061 3.2 3.1–3.3
Fair 6,441 4.8 4.5–5.1 11,041 7.2 6.8–7.5 17,482 6.0 5.8–6.3
Poor 2,464 11.3 10.2–12.4 4,154 11.2 10.3–12.1 6,618 11.2 10.5–12.0
All categories 67,350 2.4 2.3–2.5 98,893 3.6 3.4–3.7 166,243 3.0 2.9–3.1
  1. Note. *Selected U.S. states, 1995–2000; all variables except age-groups are age-adjusted.