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Table 2 Forced 1-factor and 2-factor EFA of the ITAS: whole sample and by treatment type

From: Further investigation of the psychometric properties of the insulin treatment appraisal scale among insulin-using and non-insulin-using adults with type 2 diabetes: results from diabetes MILES – Australia

Item Whole sample Non-insulin users Insulin users
Total scale Two factor Total scale Two factor Total scale Two factor
Negative subscale Positive subscale Negative subscale Positive subscale Negative subscale Positive subscale
1 Taking insulin means I have failed to manage my diabetes with diet and tablets 0.55 0.54   0.54 0.48   0.40 0.37  
2 Taking insulin means my diabetes has become much worse 0.60 0.59   0.59 0.48 -0.38 0.43 0.39  
3^ Taking insulin helps to prevent complications of diabetes    0.69    0.71    0.57
4 Taking insulin means other people see me as a sicker person 0.65 0.64   0.64 0.54 -0.36 0.59 0.59  
5 Taking insulin makes life less flexible 0.72 0.71   0.70 0.60 -0.33 0.64 0.69  
6 I'm afraid of injecting myself with a needle 0.65 0.66   0.58 0.60   0.52 0.51  
7 Taking insulin increases the risk of low blood glucose levels (hypoglycaemia) 0.44 0.43   0.37    0.47 0.47  
8^ Taking insulin helps to improve my health    0.76    0.72    0.81
9 Insulin causes weight gain     0.43 0.43   0.37 0.37  
10 Managing insulin injections takes a lot of time and energy 0.74 0.74   0.69 0.70   0.68 0.69  
11 Taking insulin means I have to give up activities I enjoy 0.72 0.73   0.70 0.74   0.67 0.69  
12 Taking insulin means my health will deteriorate 0.70 0.72   0.66 0.73   0.71 0.66  
13 Taking insulin is embarrassing 0.71 0.73   0.69 0.78   0.70 0.71  
14 Injecting insulin is painful 0.71 0.72   0.69 0.74   0.65 0.66  
15 It is difficult to inject the right amount of insulin correctly at the right time every day 0.68 0.69   0.67 0.71   0.51 0.50  
16 Taking insulin makes it more difficult to fulfil my responsibilities (at work, at home) 0.79 0.80   0.75 0.80   0.73 0.71  
17^ Taking insulin helps to maintain good control of my blood glucose    0.74    0.73    0.74
18 Being on insulin causes family and friends to be more concerned about me 0.59 0.56 -0.32 0.60 0.47 -0.42 0.40 0.48  
19^ Taking insulin helps to improve my energy levels    0.55    0.50    0.63
20 Taking insulin makes me more dependent on my doctor 0.62 0.61   0.64 0.58   0.48 0.51  
Cronbach’s alpha 0.87 0.90 0.69 0.85 0.89 0.69 0.84 0.85 0.68
Total variance explained 33.4% 45% 32% 44.9% 27.0% 38%
  1. NB. EFA conducted using oblimin rotation. Loadings < ±0.30 have been suppressed from the table for clarity of interpretation.
  2. ^positive ITAS items.