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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population by ethnicity

From: Ethnic differences in health related quality of life for patients with type 2 diabetes

  Indians Pakistanis Bangladeshis Other South Asians All South Asians White Europeans p-value†
  (n = 461) (n = 876) (n = 138) (n = 11) (n = 1486) (n = 492)  
Age (years)
Mean [SD] 59.5 [11.4] 56.2 [11.9] 54.3 [11.5] 49.5 [11.5] 57.0 [11.9] 64.8 [11.6] <0.0001
Gender        
Male; n (%) 267 (58.0) 438 (50.0) 65 (47.1) 6 (54.6) 776 (52.2) 287 (58.6) 0.015
Female; n (%) 193 (42.0) 438 (50.0) 73 (52.9) 5 (45.5) 709 (47.7) 203 (41.4)  
Marital status
Single; n (%) 8 (1.8) 2 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 11 (0.7) 38 (8.0) <0.0001
Married; n (%) 402 (90.1) 811 (93.0) 128 (92.8) 9 (81.8) 1350 (90.8) 358 (75.1)  
Widowed; n (%) 31 (7.0) 53 (6.1) 9 (6.5) 1 (9.1) 94 (6.3) 49 (10.0)  
Divorced; n (%) 5 (1.1) 6 (0.7) 1 (0.7) 0 (−) 12 (0.8) 32 (6.7)  
Carstairs index score
Mean [SD] 2.9 [3.6] 8.2 [4.0] 8.2 [4.1] 9.0 [4.6] 6.6 [4.6] 1.7 [3.1] <0.0001
−5 – 0.49, n (%) 133 (29.0) 51 (5.9) 8 (5.8) 0 (0.0) 192 (13.0) 202 (42.1)  
0.5 – 3.9, n (%) 159 (34.7) 74 (8.6) 14 (10.2) 2 (18.2) 249 (16.9) 160 (33.3)  
4.0 – 6.9, n (%) 97 (21.2) 184 (21.3) 32 (23.4) 2(18.2) 315(21.4) 83 (17.3)  
7.0 – 9.9, n (%) 62 (13.5) 257 (29.7) 39 (28.5) 1 (9.1) 359(24.4) 32 (6.7)  
10.0 – 17.0, n (%) 7 (1.5) 300 (34.6) 44 (32.1) 6(54.6) 357(24.3) 3 (0.6)  
Smoking status
Non-smoker; n (%) 407 (88.3) 634 (72.4) 89 (64.5) 5 (45.5) 1135 (76.4) 231 (47.0) <0.0001
Current smoker; n (%) 29 (6.3) 156 (17.8) 36 (26.1) 2 (18.2) 223 (15.0) 75 (15.2)  
Ex-smoker; n (%) 25 (5.4) 86 (9.8) 13 (9.4) 4 (36.4) 128 (8.6) 186 (37.8)  
Alcohol use
No; n (%) 298 (64.6) 858 (97.9) 138 (100) 10 (90.9) 1304 (87.8) 231 (47.0) <0.0001
Yes; n (%) 163 (35.4) 18 (2.1) 0 (−) 1 (9.1) 182 (12.2) 261 (53.0)  
BMI score
Mean [SD] 28.3 [5.0] 28.9 [5.3] 26.5 [4.0] 29.6 [5.6] 28.5 [5.1] 30.9 [7.3] <0.0001
< 18.5; n (%) 1 (0.2) 2 (0.2) 0 (−) 0 (−) 3 (0.2) 5 (1.0)  
18.5 – 24.9; n (%) 88 (19.1) 156 (17.8) 46 (33.3) 2 (18.2) 292 (19.7) 74 (15.0)  
25.0 – 29.9; n (%) 218 (47.3) 370 (42.2) 64 (46.4) 4 (36.4) 656 (44.2) 144 (29.3)  
30.0 – 34.9; n (%) 106 (23.0) 231 (26.4) 20 (14.5) 3 (27.3) 360 (24.2) 156 (31.7)  
35.0 – 39.9; n (%) 36 (7.8) 86 (9.8) 7 (5.1) 2 (18.2) 131 (8.8) 57 (11.6)  
>40.0; n (%) 12 (2.6) 31 (3.5) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 44 (3.0) 56 (11.4)  
Duration of diabetes (years)
Mean [SD] 7.6 [7.0] 7.7 [6.7] 8.5 [6.1] 3.9[4.6] 7.7 [6.7] 6.3 [7.0] <0.0001
0 – 1years, n (%) 80 (17.4) 126 (14.4) 7 (5.1) 2 (18.2) 215 (14.5) 74 (15.0)  
2 – 5years, n (%) 154 (33.4) 304 (34.7) 51 (37.0) 8 (72.7) 517 (34.8) 226 (45.9)  
6 – 10years, n (%) 113 (24.5) 215 (24.5) 31 (22.5) 0 (−) 359 (24.2) 111 (22.6)  
11 – 15years, n (%) 50 (10.9) 116 (13.2) 29 (21.0) 0 (−) 195 (13.1) 41 (8.3)  
>15years, n (%) 64 (13.9) 115 (13.1) 20 (14.5) 1 (9.1) 200 (13.5) 40 (8.1)  
Diabetes treatment
Diet only; n (%) 48 (10.4) 113 (12.9) 13 (9.4) 2 (18.2) 176 (11.8) 142 (28.9) <0.0001
Tablets; n (%) 328 (71.2) 587 (67.0) 97 (70.3) 8 (72.7) 1038 (69.9) 285 (57.9)  
Insulin; n (%) 47 (10.2) 73 (8.3) 12 (8.7) 1 (9.1) 128 (8.6) 35 (7.1)  
Tablets and Insulin; n (%) 38 (8.2) 103 (11.8) 16 (11.6) 0 (−) 144 (9.7) 30 (6.1)  
Family history of diabetes
No; n (%) 236 (51.2) 386 (44.1) 75 (54.3) 3 (27.3) 700 (47.1) 287 (58.3) <0.0001
Yes; n (%) 225 (48.8) 490 (55.9) 63 (45.7) 8 (72.7) 786 (52.9) 205 (41.7)  
History of cardiovascular disease
No; n (%) 371 (80.5) 724 (82.7) 114 (82.6) 9 (81.8) 1218 (82.0) 387 (78.7) 0.104
Yes; n (%) 90 (19.5) 152 (17.4) 24 (17.4) 2 (18.2) 268 (18.0) 105 (21.3)  
Albumin concentration
Normal; n (%) 303 (72.8) 612 (73.6) 85 (64.4) 7 (77.8) 1007 (72.5) 343 (74.1) <0.0001
Microalbuminuria; n (%) 84 (20.2) 162 (19.5) 33 (25.0) 2 (22.2) 281 (20.2) 109 (23.5)  
Proteinuria; n (%) 29 (7.0) 58 (7.0) 14 (10.6) 0 (−) 101 (7.3) 11 (2.4)  
EQ-5D utility score
Mean [SD] 0.8 [0.3] 0.6 [0.4] 0.7 [0.3] 0.6 [0.4] 0.7 [0.3] 0.7 [0.3] 0.0005
EQ-5D VAS score
Mean [SD] 63.7 [19.7] 63.2 [22.3] 64.0 [21.4] 69.2 [28.2] 63.5 [21.49] 71.3 [18.1] <0.0001
  1. Missing data: Age 3, gender 3, marital status 34, Carstairs Index 26, proteinuria 126, EQ-5D utility score 272, EQ-5D VAS score 306.
  2. † Comparisons between all south Asians and white Europeans using Student t-tests for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.