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Table 5 The prognostic effect of QLQ C-30 variables 3 months after NSCLC diagnosis on survival (bivariate and multivariate analyses)

From: Quality of life after the initial treatments of non-small cell lung cancer: a persistent predictor for patients’ survival

Model without global health
  Bivariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variables HR 95% CI p HR 95% CI p
Functioning domains (100 = good)       
Physical functioning ≥50 0.612 0.431 - 0.869 0.006 0.787 0.506 - 1.226 0.289
Role functioning ≥50 0.640 0.469 - 0.874 0.005 0.907 0.573 - 1.437 0.677
Cognitive functioning ≥50 0.916 0.554 - 1.152 0.733    
Social functioning ≥50 0.656 0.477 - 0.900 0.009 1.058 0.695 - 1.609 0.794
Emotional functioning ≥50 0.841 0.604 - 1.170 0.304    
Symptom domains (100 = severe)       
Pain <50 0.774 0.567 - 1.056 0.106    
Fatigue <50 0.616 0.445 - 0.851 0.003 0.703 0.471 - 1.049 0.084
Sleep disturbance <50 0.876 0.641 - 1.197 0.406    
Constipation <50 0.660 0.460 - 0.948 0.024 0.786 0.523 - 1.181 0.246
Nausea and vomiting <50 0.624 0.434 - 0.897 0.011 0.849 0.529 - 1.363 0.498
Apetite loss <50 0.628 0.457 - 0.863 0.004 0.890 0.599 - 1.324 0.567
Diarhoea <50 0.660 0.373 - 1.168 0.153    
Dyspnea <50 1.095 0.803 - 1.491 0.567    
Patient characteristics       
Age 1.011 0.979 - 1.044 0.497 1.085 1.023 - 1.152 0.007
Sex:       
 - Men 1    1   
 - Women 0.732 0.293 - 1.831 0.505 0.633 0.411 - 0.976 0.038
Education level:       
 - Primary 1      
 - Secondary 0.783 0.554 - 1.107 0.167    
 - Post secondary 0.695 0.352 - 1.372 0.294    
Stage of cancer       
 - Stage I - II 1    1   
 - Stage III 1.971 0.916 - 4.239 0.011 13.463 2.036 - 89.038 0.007
 - Stage IV 4.898 1.518 - 15.801 <0.001 207.281 6.471 - 6639.251 0.003
Treatment before the HRQoL measurement       
 - Chemotherapy only 1    1   
 - Chemo and radiotherapy 0.656 0.388 - 1.109 0.115 0.635 0.366 - 1.103 0.107
 - Surgery alone or surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy 0.229 0.152 - 0.345 <0.001 0.227 0.143 - 0.363 <0.001
Interaction       
Age*stage of cancer 0.973 0.947 - 1.000 0.049 0.959 0.932 - 0.987 0.004
Model with global health only
  Bivariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variables HR 95% CI p HR 95% CI p
(100 = good)       
Global HRQoL ≥50 0.688 0.504 - 0.938 0.018 0.689 0.501 - 0.946 0.021
Patient characteristics       
Age 1.011 0.979 - 1.044 0.497 1.083 1.022 - 1.147 0.007
Sex:       
 - Men 1    1   
 - Women 0.732 0.293 - 1.831 0.505 0.682 0.452 - 1.029 0.068
Education level:       
 - Primary 1      
 - Secondary 0.783 0.554 - 1.107 0.167    
 - Post secondary 0.695 0.352 - 1.372 0.294    
Stage of cancer       
 - Stage I - II 1    1   
 - Stage III 1.971 0.916 - 4.239 0.011 11.982 1.881 - 76.310 0.009
 - Stage IV 4.898 1.518 - 15.801 <0.001 167.961 5.666 - 4979.331 0.003
Treatment before the HRQoL measurement       
 - Chemotherapy only 1    1   
 - Chemo and radiotherapy 0.656 0.388 - 1.109 0.115 0.690 0.406 - 1.173 0.171
 - Surgery alone or surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy 0.229 0.152 - 0.345 <0.001 0.239 0.151 - 0.377 <0.001
Interaction       
Age*stage of cancer 0.973 0.947 - 1.000 0.049 0.962 0.935 - 0.989 0.007
  1. *The interaction between Age and Stage of cancer.
  2. HR = hazard ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval.