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Table 6 Outcome measures of clinical, functional and quality-of-life outcomes

From: The effect of continuous passive motion and sling exercise training on clinical and functional outcomes following total knee arthroplasty: a randomized active-controlled clinical study

  Pretest Posttest Follow-up
Variable ST CPM ST CPM Mean difference ST CPM Mean difference
  (n = 19) (n = 19) (n = 19) (n = 19) (95% CI) (n = 19) (n = 19) (95% CI)
HSS score, %        
Pain 10.8 (6.9) 14.5 (7.4) 24.3 (6.4) 22.3 (6.4) 1.9 (−2.5, 6.4) 23.1 (6.1) 20.9 (6.1) 2.2 (−2.0, 6.4)
Function 13.7 (4.1) 15.1 (4.2) 9.7 (3.4) 10.0 (3.4) −0.3 (−2.6, 2.0) 16.7 (3.1) 17.7 (3.1) −1.1 (−3.2, 1.1)
Strength 10.0 (0.0) 9.9 (0.5) 8.9 (1.3) 9.7 (1.3) −0.9 (−1.7, 0.0) 10.0 (0.0) 10.0 (0.0) -
Instability 9.6 (1.2) 9.6 (1.2) 10.0 (0.0) 10.0 (0.0) - 10.0 (0.0) 10.0 (0.0) -
FlexDeform 9.1 (1.9) 8.7 (2.3) 10.0 (0.0) 10.0 (0.0) - 10.0 (0.0) 10.0 (0.0) -
ROM 13.9 (1.6) 13.1 (2.4) 12.3 (1.0) 11.5 (1.0) 0.8 (0.2, 1.5)* 12.7 (1.8) 12.9 (1.8) −0.2 (−1.4, 1.1)
Total 66.3 (11.8) 69.9 (11.8) 71.6 (9.7) 70.8 (9.7) 0.8 (−5.8, 7.4) 81.6 (10.2) 79.2 (10.2) 2.4 (−4.5, 9.4)
SF-36 score, %         
Physical health 32.9 (16.2) 30.3 (13.5) 40.0 (14.0) 37.6 (14.0) 2.5 (−6.9, 11.9) 52.5 (19.7) 52.6 (19.7) 0.1 (−13.3, 13.2)
Mental health 66.3 (19.8) 57.8 (20.5) 68.1 (18.1) 66.2 (18.1) 1.6 (−10.6, 13.9) 72.7 (18.2) 69.4 (18.2) 3.2 (−9.0, 15.6)
Total 49.9 (15.1) 44.0 (15.4) 50.9 (14.3) 52.3 (14.3) −1.4 (−11.1, 8.3) 63.5 (16.3) 61.3 (16.3) 2.2 (−8.8, 13.2)
WOMAC score, %        
Pain 8.9 (3.3) 9.5 (3.9) 15.2 (3.7) 14.9 (3.7) 0.3 (−2.2, 2.8) 15.2 (3.6) 14.7 (3.6) 0.42 (−2.03, 2.87)
Stiffness 4.6 (2.0) 4.0 (1.9) 6.0 (1.5) 6.4 (1.5) −0.4 (−1.4, 0.6) 5.5 (1.6) 5.1 (1.6) 0.31 (−0.75, 1.37)
FD 32.3 (9.2) 34.7 (8.7) 44.9 (12.9) 43.7 (12.9) 1.2 (−7.5, 9.9) 49.4 (8.3) 47.2 (8.3) 2.22 (−3.40, 7.83)
Total 47.9 (13.6) 46.8 (18.2) 69.6 (18.1) 67.3 (18.1) 2.3 (−9.8, 14.4) 73.2 (12.5) 67.7 (12.5) 5.51 (−2.83, 13.86)
  1. Abbreviations: ST, sling exercise training group; CPM, continuous passive motion group; HSS score, Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score; FlexDeform, flexion deformity; ROM, range of motion; SF-36, Short Form Health Survey; WOMAC score, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Score; FD, functional difficulty.
  2. *denotes a significant difference (P ≤ 0.025); denotes a statistical tendency (P ≤ 0.100). ANCOVA: adjusted for baseline, sex, weight and age.
  3. Values of the pretest are presented as mean (standard deviation). Values of the posttest and follow-up-measurement are presented as estimated marginal means (standard deviation).