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Table 4 Outcome measures of knee joint range of motion and static postural control with open and closed eyes

From: The effect of continuous passive motion and sling exercise training on clinical and functional outcomes following total knee arthroplasty: a randomized active-controlled clinical study

  Pretest Posttest Follow-up
Variable ST CPM ST CPM Mean difference ST CPM Mean difference
  (n = 19) (n = 19) (n = 19) (n = 19) (95% CI) (n = 19) (n = 19) (95% CI)
Range of motion        
Active flexion, ° 108.4 (15.1) 103.0 (21.7) 91.8 (6.9) 87.4 (6.9) 4.4 (−0.4, 9.1) 101.4 (9.6) 103.3 (9.6) −1.9 (−8.5, 4.7)
Passive flexion, ° 111.6 (13.7) 106.1 (20.2) 95.3 (7.4) 89.2 (7.4) 6.0 (0.9, 11.2)* 104.1 (8.6) 107.1 (8.6) −3.0 (−8.9, 2.9)
Active extension, ° 4.5 (5.2) 3.4 (6.7) 1.6 (3.2) 1.7 (3.2) −0.1 (−2.3, 2.1) 3.8 (5.4) 2.0 (5.4) 1.8 (−1.9, 5.4)
Passive extension, ° 3.6 (4.0) 3.4 (5.5) 0.7 (1.6) <0.1 (1.6) 0.7 (−0.4, 1.8) 2.8 (4.1) 0.8 (4.1) 2.0 (−0.8, 3.8)
Postural control – eyes open       
Area, cm2 1.50 (0.52) 1.47 (0.92) 1.63 (0.83) 1.62 (0.83) 0.01 (−0.54, 0.56) 1.42 (0.62) 1.44 (0.62) −0.03 (−0.43, 0.38)
Swaym-l, mm 5.33 (2.46) 4.84 (1.77) 6.61 (2.73) 7.29 (2.73) −0.68 (−2.50, 1.14) 6.25 (2.18) 6.12 (2.18) 0.13 (−1.30, 1.56)
Swaya-p, mm 5.66 (2.22) 4.99 (1.64) 8.77 (4.11) 7.86 (4.11) 0.92 (−1.82, 3.66) 7.29 (2.95) 6.17 (2.95) 1.12 (−0.83, 3.07)
Velocitym-l, mm∙s−1 11.32 (2.66) 11.55 (4.78) 17.87 (7.59) 18.03 (7.59) −0.17 (−5.19, 4.86) 15.70 (8.59) 18.32 (8.59) −2.62 (−8.26, 3.02)
Velocitya-p, mm∙s−1 12.53 (3.09) 11.89 (3.40) 24.39 (8.72) 22.39 (8.72) 2.00 (−3.80, 7.79) 19.64 (8.00) 20.13 (8.00) −0.48 (−5.74, 4.77)
Postural control – eyes closed       
Area. cm2 3.24 (2.11) 4.16 (3.39) 3.83 (1.41) 3.23 (1.41) 0.59 (−0.35, 1.53) 3.19 (2.09) 3.68 (2.09) −0.49 (−1.87, 0.89)
Swaym-l, mm 6.30 (2.08) 6.90 (2.28) 6.84 (2.55) 7.13 (2.55) −0.29 (−1.98, 1.40) 6.36 (2.01) 6.03 (2.01) 0.32 (−1.00, 1.64)
Swaya-p, mm 7.33 (2.65) 8.29 (4.76) 9.12 (3.98) 7.54 (3.98) 1.58 (−1.05, 4.22) 7.99 (2.31) 7.33 (2.31) 0.66 (−0.86, 2.18)
Velocitym-l, mm∙s−1 16.54 (5.48) 19.10 (11.70) 18.61 (5.59) 17.37 (5.59) 1.23 (−2.47, 4.94) 16.95 (7.25) 17.20 (7.25) −0.25 (−5.04, 4.54)
Velocitya-p, mm∙s−1 19.34 (5.58) 21.63 (14.36) 25.71 (6.44) 21.21 (6.44) 4.50 (0.23, 8.77) 20.44 (6.66) 19.41 (6.66) 1.03(−3.36, 5.42)
  1. Abbreviations: ST, sling exercise training group; CPM, continuous passive motion group; m-l, medio-lateral; a-p, anterior-posterior.
  2. *denotes a significant difference (P ≤ 0.025); denotes a statistical tendency (P ≤ 0.100). ANCOVA: values of the posttest were adjusted for baseline, sex, weight, age, pain and physical activity; values of the follow-up-measurement were adjusted for baseline, sex, weight, age and physical activity.
  3. Values of the pretest are presented as mean (standard deviation). Values of the posttest and follow-up-measurement are presented as estimated marginal means (standard deviation).