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Table 5 ICF categories referring to environmental factors

From: What explains health in persons with visual impairment?

ICF code ICF category title Total sample(N = 105) Sample stratified by VI-category#
  Barrier§ Facilitator§t Moderate (n = 40) Severe (n = 25) High-grade (n = 14) Blindness (n = 26)
Sum 1-4 Sum 1-4 Sum 1-4 Sum 1-4
   n n n % % % % %
e125 Products and technology for communication 4 94 98 95.1 90.0 100.0 100.0 96.2
e540 Transportation services, systems and policies 14 79 93 90.3 85.0 91.7 84.6 100.0
e240 Light 36 57 93 89.4 90.0 96.0 100.0 76.9
e355 Health professionals 9 84 93 89.4 100.0 80.0 100.0 76.9
e410 Individual attitudes of immediate family members 6 87 93 89.4 90.0 88.0 76.9 96.2
e580 Health services, systems and policies 34 58 92 89.3 82.1 92.0 92.3 96.2
e450 Individual attitudes of health professionals 12 77 89 85.6 90.0 80.0 76.9 88.5
e130 Products and technology for education 2 86 88 85.4 75.0 87.5 84.6 100.0
e310 Immediate family 2 86 88 84.6 90.0 76.0 84.6 84.6
e420 Individual attitudes of friends 4 80 84 80.8 77.5 72.0 69.2 100.0
e460 Societal attitudes 29 53 82 78.8 70.0 68.0 92.3 96.2
e220 Flora and fauna 1 76 77 74.0 72.5 72.0 53.8 88.5
e320 Friends 1 74 75 72.1 62.5 68.0 76.9 88.5
e150 Design, construction and building products and technology of buildings for public use 43 30 73 71.6 66.7 66.7 61.5 88.5
e425 Individual attitudes of acquaintances, peers, colleagues, neighbours and community members 12 61 73 70.2 67.5 64.0 61.5 84.6
e115 Products and technology for personal use in daily living 3 66 69 67.0 60.0 54.2 61.5 88.5
e120 Products and technology for personal indoor and outdoor mobility and transportation 3 66 69 67.0 60.0 58.3 53.8 92.3
e155 Design, construction and building products and technology of buildings for private use 31 36 67 64.4 60.0 52.0 61.5 84.6
e585 Education and training services, systems and policies 31 36 67 64.4 15.4 29.2 30.8 76.9
e325 Acquaintances, peers, colleagues, neighbours and community members 3 63 66 63.5 67.5 44.0 53.8 80.8
e250 Sound 47 18 65 63.1 50.0 66.7 53.8 84.6
e570 Social security services, systems and policies 26 39 65 62.5 60.0 68.0 53.8 65.4
e535 Communication services, systems and policies 9 55 64 62.1 50.0 70.8 53.8 76.9
e560 Media services, systems and policies 8 56 64 62.1 52.5 75.0 53.8 69.2
e415 Individual attitudes of extended family members 10 53 63 60.6 57.5 68.0 69.2 53.8
e225 Climate 42 19 61 58.7 65.0 56.0 53.8 53.8
e110 Products or substances for personal consumption 8 52 60 58.3 52.5 50.0 53.8 76.9
e575 General social support services, systems and policies 23 34 57 54.8 47.5 56.0 46.2 69.2
e465 Social norms, practices and ideologies 24 27 51 49.0 37.5 48.0 53.8 65.4
e315 Extended family 7 41 48 46.2 45.0 52.0 38.5 46.2
e140 Products and technology for culture, recreation and sport   47 47 45.6 45.0 33.3 53.8 53.8
e590 Labour and employment services, systems and policies 25 16 41 41.0 20.5 41.7 30.8 79.2
e455 Individual attitudes of health-related professionals 3 31 34 33.0 22.5 25.0 53.8 46.2
e430 Individual attitudes of people in positions of authority 14 18 32 30.8 20.0 36.0 23.1 46.2
e135 Products and technology for employment   30 30 29.1 20.0 16.7 15.4 61.5
e330 People in positions of authority 9 17 26 25.0 10.0 28.0 30.8 42.3
e525 Housing services, systems and policies 10 14 24 23.1 15.0 16.0 15.4 46.2
e360 Other professionals 3 20 23 22.3 12.5 16.7 30.8 38.5
e340 Personal care providers and personal assistants 2 20 22 21.2 22.5 16.0 15.4 26.9
e550 Legal services, systems and policies 6 12 18 17.5 7.5 16.7 30.8 26.9
e440 Individual attitudes of personal care providers and personal assistants 2 16 18 17.3 20.0 12.0 0.0 26.9
  1. ICF categories are reported that were coded as at least a mild barrier or facilitator in more than five percent of participants, ordered by frequency (n). Results are shown for total sample and stratified by VI-category.
  2. VI = visual impairment.
  3. §1: mild facilitator/barrier, 2: moderate facilitator/barrier, 3: substantial facilitator/barrier, 4: complete facilitator/barrier.
  4. #Moderate VI: BCVA 20/63 - 20/200, Severe VI: BCVA 20/200 - 1/20, High-grade VI: BCVA 1/20 - 1/50, Blindness: BCVA ≤ 1/50.