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Table 4 Multivariate association between educational level and mean VAS score: participants with ‘moderate/severe problems’ or with chronic disease

From: Health-related quality of life and socioeconomic status: inequalities among adults with a chronic disease

  Linear regression coeff. for low educational level a
  Men women Total b
  Estimate P-value Estimate P-value Estimate P-value
Total – 2.98* <0.0001 −1.84* <0.0001 −2.57* <0.0001
Problemsc concerning:       
Mobility – 4.11* 0.0064 −1.07 0.4683 −2.52* 0.0171
Self-care −10.29* 0.0042 −2.25 0.4537 −5.69* 0.0134
Usual activities – 3.06 0.0896 −0.60 0.7143 −1.72 0.1548
Pain/discomfort – 2.86* 0.0020 −0.61 0.4821 −1.77* 0.0052
Anxiety/depression – 5.00* 0.0116 −1.90 0.1643 −3.00* 0.0076
At least 1 dimension – 2.92* 0.0007 −1.02 0.1920 −1.97* 0.0007
None of these – 0.73* 0.0404 −0.43 0.2293 −0.58* 0.0218
Chronic diseasec       
Muscul. system – 0.82 0.6778 +0.26 0.8938 −0.24 0.8610
Hypertension – 4.81* 0.0231 −0.65 0.7406 −2.74 0.0563
Diabetes mellitus −10.14* 0.0006 −5.14 0.0533 −7.37* 0.0002
Heart disease −10.53* 0.0092 −1.70 0.6290 −5.53* 0.0429
Rheumatism – 7.18* 0.0345 −2.93 0.4447 −4.96 0.0532
Headache/migraine −10.23* 0.0012 −3.73 0.1933 −5.54* 0.0151
Any of these six – 4.74* 0.0002 −1.44 0.2197 −3.10* 0.0003
Any chronic disease – 3.45* 0.0019 −0.86 0.3790 −2.15* 0.0034
  1. *Significant at the 5% level.
  2. a)Comparison group: ‘high educational level’; adjusted for age.
  3. b)Also adjusted for sex.
  4. c)See Table 1.