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Table 3 Multivariate association between educational level and ‘moderate/severe problems’: participants with a chronic disease

From: Health-related quality of life and socioeconomic status: inequalities among adults with a chronic disease

  Odds ratio (p-value) for low educational level a
Moderate or severe problems concerning …
  Mobility Self-care Usual activities Pain/discomf. Anxiety/depression At least 1 dimension
Total sample 1.56* 1.87* 1.72* 1.45* 1.22* 1.39*
  (<0.0001) (<0.0001) (<0.0001) (<0.0001) (0.0012) (<0.0001)
Chron. diseaseb       
Muscul. 1.30 2.11* 1.63* 0.95 1.10 0.81
System (0.0998) (0.0072) (0.0038) (0.8340) (0.5968) (0.4364)
Hypertension 1.02 1.49 1.53* 1.26 0.97 1.37
  (0.8887) (0.1642) (0.0170) (0.1773) (0.8862) (0.0798)
Diabetes 1.58* 2.15* 2.26* 1.00 2.24* 1.47
Mellitus (0.0484) (0.0329) (0.0007) (0.9994) (0.0018) (0.1730)
Heart disease 1.93* 3.18* 2.05* 1.83* 1.48 1.77
  (0.0181) (0.0031) (0.0077) (0.0464) (0.1707) (0.0824)
Rheumatism 1.72 1.72 1.55 2.15 1.21 2.09
  (0.0692) (0.2001) (0.1530) (0.0843) (0.5512) (0.1963)
Headache/ 1.91 2.28 3.04* 2.04* 1.73 1.79
Migraine (0.0712) (0.1777) (0.0101) (0.0488) (0.1403) (0.1157)
Any of 1.39* 2.36* 1.72* 1.32* 1.20 1.31*
These six (0.0012) (<0.0001) (<0.0001) (0.0132) (0.0957) (0.0235)
Any chronic 1.49* 2.07* 1.61* 1.31* 1.25* 1.28*
Disease (<0.0001) (<0.0001) (<0.0001) (0.0028) (0.0145) (0.0120)
  1. *Significant at the 5% level.
  2. a)Comparison group ‘high educational level’, adjusted for age and sex.
  3. b)See Table 1.