Skip to main content

Table 4 True standardized mean differences (PI DIFF ) and impact of non-invariant items on latent (ES SI-PI ; lower triangle) and composite (ES PI-ALL , ES PI-RES , upper triangle) mean differences

From: Measurement invariance across chronic conditions: a systematic review and an empirical investigation of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ™)

Disease group Ortho Rheu Asthma COPD Cancer  
Positive and active engagement in life
Ortho    0.32a 0.27a 0.31a 0.24a ES PI-ALL
  0.09 0.17 0.06 0.03 ES PI-RED
Rheu PI Diff 0.59   0.08 0.02 0.10 ES PI-ALL
ES SI-PI 0.27a   0.14 0.05 b ES PI-RED
Asthma PI Diff 0.20 -0.43   0.06 0.02 ES PI-ALL
ES SI-PI 0.28a -0.02   0.09 0.04 ES PI-RED
COPD PI Diff 0.47 -0.13 0.27   0.08 ES PI-ALL
ES SI-PI 0.27a -0.13 0.01   0.12 ES PI-RED
Cancer PI Diff -0.03 -0.64 -0.24 -0.52   
  ES SI-PI 0.28a > - 0.01 0.01 > - 0.01   
Self-monitoring and insight
Ortho    0.11 0.22a 0.12 0.10 ES PI-ALL
  0.02 0.06 0.02 0.04 ES PI-RED
Rheu PI Diff 0.24   0.32a 0.22a 0.21a ES PI-ALL
ES SI-PI 0.08   0.13 0.08 0.10 ES PI-RED
Asthma PI Diff -0.34 -0.56   0.09 0.13 ES PI-ALL
ES SI-PI -0.05 -0.13   0.03 0.02 ES PI-RED
COPD PI Diff -0.16 -0.38 0.16   0.03 ES PI-ALL
ES SI-PI -0.03 -0.10 0.03   0.02 ES PI-RED
Cancer PI Diff -0.31 -0.55 0.04 -0.15   
  ES SI-PI <0.01 -0.08 0.06 0.02  
  1. Notes: Ortho: orthopedic condition; Rheu: rheumatism; PIDiff: Estimations of latent mean differences in partial invariance models; ESSI-PI: Difference in latent mean differences between strict and partial invariance models; ESPI-ALL: Difference between latent mean differences in partial invariance models and composite mean differences using all items of a scale; ESPI-RED: Difference between latent mean differences in partial invariance models and composite mean differences using only items with pairwise non-invariant parameters; arelevant misestimation (ES > |0.2|); bno item with DIF between groups.