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Table 1 Key properties of the six preference-based HRQoL instruments discussed by focus group participants a

From: Perceptions of individuals living with spinal cord injury toward preference-based quality of life instruments: a qualitative exploration

Instrument Dimensions/domains within the descriptive system Number of items used to derive a health state valuation Number of unique health statesb
15D [10] 15: mobility, vision, hearing, breathing, sleeping, eating, speech, elimination, usual activities, mental function, discomfort and symptoms, depression, distress, vitality, sexual activity 15 questions, each with 5 levels of response More than 30 billion
AQoL-8D [11] 8: independent living, senses, pain, mental health, happiness, self worth, coping, relationships 35 questions, with between 4 and 6 levels of response More than 60 trillion
EQ-5D-5L [12] 5: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression 5 questions, each with 5 levels of response 3125
HUI [13] 6: sensation, mobility, emotion, cognition, self-care, pain 15 questions, with between 4 and 6 levels of responsec 8,000
QWB-SA [14] 5: acute and/or chronic symptoms, self-care, mobility, physical functioning, performance of usual activity At least 71 questions, with varying response formatsd 1,215
SF-6D (SF-36v2) [15] 6: physical functioning, role limitations, social functioning, pain, mental health, vitality 11 (of 36) questions, with between 3 and 6 levels of responsee 18,000
  1. aAll preference-based HRQoL measures provide scores that are interpretable on a 0–1 scale, where 0 = health state equivalent to death and 1 = full health. Discussion sequences were as follows: HUI, EQ-5D-5L, 15D, AQoL-8D, QWB-SA, SF-36v2 (focus group 1); 15D, AQoL-8D, QWB-SA, SF-36v2, HUI, EQ-5D-5L (focus group 2); QWB-SA, SF-36v2, HUI, EQ-5D-5L, 15D, AQoL-8D (focus group 3).
  2. b‘Number of unique health states’ refers to the total number of different ways to complete the instrument. For example, for the EQ-5D-5L there are 55 possible response combinations (5x5x5x5x5 = 3125).
  3. cAlthough there are 15 items contained in the descriptive system of the Health Utilities Index, scoring algorithms for the HUI Mark 2 (HUI2) and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3) are based on different subsets of these items (12 items and 13 items, respectively).
  4. dDirect communication with the instrument developers.
  5. eThe SF-6D can be derived from both the 12-item (SF-12) and 36-item (SF-36) Short Form health surveys; the respective descriptive systems comprise 7 of 12 items and 11 of 36 items. The SF-6D is validated only when derived from the larger 12-item or 36-item Short Form health surveys. It is not appropriate to administer only those items that are used in the derivation of SF-6D utility scores and, therefore, participants were asked to consider the SF-36v2 in its entirety.