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Table 3 Characteristics of the study population and principal results from OHRQoL studies in preschool children (studies involving children aged 6 have also been included)

From: A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children’s oral health related quality of life

Study design Study sample Age of the sample Sample size n (response rate) OHRQOL instrument and method of administration Parental characteristics studied Significant parental characteristics in unadjusted analysis Significant parental characteristics in adjusted analysis Insignificant parental characteristics Quality Reference
CS Preschool children who sought dental care during the screening program at University of Sao Paulo, Brazil 2-5 260 (85.2%) ECOHIS questionnaire by one of the parent Number of siblings Household crowding Family income Number of siblings Moderate [22]
Marital status of parents Mother’s work activity Marital status of parents
Household crowding Family income House property
House property Mother’s age
Family income Father’s age
Mothers’ age Mother’s education
Father’s age Father’s education
Mother’s education Father’s work activity
Father’s education
Father’s work activity away from home
Mother’s work activity away from home
Prospective cohort Interview data from Carolina oral health literacy project 3-5 203 ECOHIS questionnaire by caregivers Caregiver’s oral health literacy Caregiver’s age (inversely related to ECOHIS) Not conducted None Moderate [27]
Caregiver's age Caregiver’s education (inversely related to ECOHIS)
Caregiver’s education Caregiver’s oral health literacy (weakly correlated with ECOHIS)
(no p values provided for the relationship between any of the variables and children’s OHRQoL)
CS Children and mothers of city of Pelotas, Brazil 2-5 608 (88.7%) ECOHIS questionnaire by mothers Maternal dental anxiety Maternal dental anxiety for total ECOHIS score, child’s function and parent distress domain Maternal dental anxiety for parent distress domain Family income Moderate [30]
Family income Mother’s education Mother’s education for total ECOHIS score
Mother’s education Mother’s use of dental services Mother’s use of dental service for child’s function domain and total ECOHIS
Mother’s use of dental services
CS Public prescool/nurseries children of Canoas, Brazil 2-5 1245 (90.2%) ECOHIS questionnaire by caregivers Mother’s age None None Mother’s age Moderate [33]
Family structure (nuclear/non-nuclear) Family structure
Mother’s education Mother’s education
Family income Family income
CS Children of Diamentina, Brazil 2-5 638 (98.1%) ECOHIS by interviewing any of the parent Marital status of parents None Mother’s age Marital status of parents Moderate [38]
Household crowding Household crowding
Mother’s age Number of siblings
Number of siblings Mother’s education
Mother’s education Father’s education
Father’s education Family income
Family income
CS Pre-school children of city of Belo Horizontem, Brazil. 5 1412 (96.3%) ECOHIS questionnaire by caregivers Child’s position (single child/others) Child’s position For child impact section (CIS) of ECOHIS For CIS of ECOHIS Moderate [48]
Caregiver’s age Caregiver’s age Child’s position Caregiver’s education
Caregiver’s education Caregiver’s education Caregivers age Caregiver’s relationship to the child
Caregiver’s relationship to the child (Mother/others) Social vulnerability index Household income Social Vulnerability Index
Household income Household income For Family impact section (FIS)of ECOHIS For FIS of ECOHIS
Social Vulnerability Index (a measure for socioeconomic status based on the residence) Caregivers age Child’s position
Household income Caregiver’s education
Caregiver’s relationship to the child
Social Vulnerability Index
CS Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong 3-5 1296 (96.5%) ECOHIS questionnaire by parents or caregivers Relationship of the primary caregiver to the child (Mother /other family member) Caregiver’s education for only symptom domain of ECOHIS Household income on family impact section of ECOHIS Relationship of caregiver to the child on overall ECOHIS, FIS and CIS. Moderate [52]
Caregiver’s education Income level for only symptom domain of ECOHIS Caregiver’s education for other domains of the ECOHIS except symptoms, overall ECOHIS, FIS and CIS
Household income
Income level for other domains of the ECOHIS except symptoms, overall ECOHIS, FIS and CIS
CS Preschool children of Patumwan district, Bangkok, Thailand 5-6 503 (100% ) Modified Child-OIDP questionnaire by subjects Family structure (Living with parents/Living with single parents or others) Hometown of the parents Occupation of the head of the household Family structure Moderate [35]
Hometown of parents (Both were from Bangkok/either was from Bangkok/both were from other places) Occupation of the head of the household
Occupation of the head of the household
CS Kindergarten children of Buenos Aires metropolitan area, Argentina Not provided 95 (69.8%) ECOHIS questionnaire by parents Family SES or poverty related factors based on parent’s/caregiver’s education, family work conditions and oral health care coverage SES or poverty related factors on family impact section of ECOHIS Not conducted None Poor [83]
  1. CS - Cross-sectional; ECOHIS - Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale.