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Table 3 Recalibration component of response shift effect assessed with the then-test method at each measurement time

From: Item response theory and factor analysis as a mean to characterize occurrence of response shift in a longitudinal quality of life study in breast cancer patients

  Baseline HRQoL Then-test 1 minus pre-test Then-test 2 minus pre-test HRQoL at three months Then-test 3 minus pre-test
N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD) P Effect size N Mean (SD) P Effect size N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD) P Effect size
QLQ-C30                 
Global Health Status 310 68.66 (20.52) 280 -0.80 (16.67) 0.600 -0.04 275 -4.21 (18.45) <0.001 -0.21 300 60.02 (20.19) 266 0.91 (21.30) 0.48 0.05
Physical functioning 313 90.01 (15.50) 283 -0.50 (10.78) 0.987 -0.03 280 -1.59 (13.26) 0.053 -0.11 301 81.31 (16.76) 273 5.10 (14.52) <0.001 0.31
Role functioning 309 89.28 (20.38) 281 -1.90 (18.70) 0.182 -0.09 282 -6.50 (23.72) <0.001 -0.32 300 74.06 (30.16) 269 8.55 (28.99) <0.001 0.30
Emotional functioning 308 64.86 (26.20) 279 5.36 (18.64) <0.001 0.21 280 6.97 (21.48) <0.001 0.27 300 72.80 (22.54) 270 -2.85 (24.55) 0.054 -0.11
Cognitive functioning 313 83.23 (20.76) 280 2.80 (14.97) 0.027 0.13 281 2.37 (18.27) 0.041 0.11 301 82.84 (21.11) 239 4.03 (20.80) 0.004 0.17
Social functioning 307 90.34 (18.88) 264 -0.51 (16.18) 0.644 -0.03 276 -5.01 (20.70) <0.001 -0.27 298 81.37 (25.42) 266 6.02 (25.77) <0.001 0.22
Fatigue 310 22.89 (22.92) 278 -1.48 (18.22) 0.039 -0.06 279 1.75 (20.92) 0.228 0.08 300 32.82 (24.08) 270 -11.03 (25.36) <0.001 -0.43
Nausea and vomiting 312 3.53 (11.18) 270 -0.77 (8.34) 0.130 -0.07 282 1.77 (15.11) 0.092 0.16 299 3.44 (10.90) 269 -3.22 (19.95) 0.010 -0.18
Pain 316 12.45 (20.87) 285 0.53 (19.04) 0.897 0.02 283 3.24 (23.03) 0.032 0.15 304 25.08 (24.82) 274 -6.02 (23.98) <0.001 -0.23
Dyspnea 310 11.72 (31.87) 280 -2.02 (15.19) 0.036 -0.09 279 -1.08 (15.58) 0.333 -0.05 301 12.86 (20.89) 269 -3.59 (24.08) 0.009 -0.15
Insomnia 307 38.11 (31.87) 277 -5.30 (27.14) 0.003 -0.17 274 -6.93 (30.94) <0.001 -0.22 299 36.63 (30.27) 266 -5.64 (32.59) 0.002 -0.18
Appetite loss 312 11.75 (22.46) 280 -3.45 520.35 0.005 -0.15 280 -1.19 (23.75) 0.323 -0.05 299 10.20 (20.13) 267 -4.62 (25.02) 0.004 -0.18
Constipation 310 12.47 (22.80) 276 -1.09 (21.15) 0.520 -0.05 277 1.56 (24.93) 0.284 0.07 298 21.38 (30.87) 264 -4.29 (26.61) 0.006 -0.16
Diarrhea 309 8.63 (16.48) 278 -2.88 (12.66) <0.001 -0.17 277 -2.89 (17.25) 0.010 -0.17 296 4.76 (12.30) 263 -0.63 (22.07) 0.483 -0.04
Financial difficulties 300 4.56 (14.60) 264 0.38 (12.83) 0.741 0.03 269 0.99 (16.51) 0.453 0.07 299 5.86 (15.93) 264 -2.15 (18.14) 0.048 -0.10
QLQ-BR23                 
Body image 295 90.04 (17.32) 262 -0.76 (11.95) 0.505 -0.05 257 -8.16 (16.96) <0.001 0.48 302 70.76 (30.77) 269 7.78 (24.82) <0.001 0.25
Sexual functioning 274 76.46 (24.01) 232 -0.50 (13.82) 0.207 -0.02 222 -1.21 (15.92) 0.206 -0.05 267 79.65 (22.06) 224 -4.69 (18.52) 0.002 -0.21
Sexual enjoyment 126 43.92 (28.79) 99 2.36 (11.91) 0.124 0.09 100 3.33 (22.97) 0.284 0.12 138 52.17 (29.31) 108 -1.54 (23.41) 0.548 -0.06
Future perspective 295 47.46 (30.86) 261 7.41 (30.60) <0.001 0.24 259 6.95 (32.47) <0.001 0.23 301 54.49 (32.76) 269 -0.12 (33.02) 0.968 -0.01
STSE 308 13.29 (15.30) 280 -1.71 (9.89) 0.008 -0.11 271 0.73 (13.84) 0.563 0.05 301 25.13 (20.20) 271 -4.76 (19.52) <0.001 -0.24
Breast symptoms 273 11.25 (14.92) 243 -0.73 (14.39) 0.152 -0.05 239 2.15 (19.76) 0.379 0.14 302 24.73 (22.97) 273 -7.28 (20.70) <0.001 -0.31
Arm symptoms 297 8.06 (14.42) 268 1.58 (18.49) 0.572 0.11 261 2.43 (16.53) 0.011 0.17 302 16.39 (18.54) 273 -2.71 (17.70) 0.010 -0.15
Hair loss 55 32.73 (36.57) 34 0.98 (17.38) 0.749 0.03 31 1.08 (25.07) 0.506 0.03 131 53.69 (39.78) 54 -8.03 (40.92) 0.173 -0.21
  1. P: Wilcoxon matched test P value.
  2. SD: standard deviation.
  3. Results in bold correspond to clinically and statistically significant results.