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Table 2 Characteristics of men as categorized by WC and WHR

From: Abdominal obesity and its association with health-related quality of life in adults: a population-based study in five Chinese cities

N (%) WC categories (cm)a WHR categoriesb
Normal WC (<85) Mild abdominal obesity (85–95) Severe abdominal obesity (≥95) P-value Normal WHR (<0.90) Abdominal obesity (≥0.90) P-value
Total 842(55.7) 452(29.9) 217(14.4)   1011(66.9) 500(33.1)  
City        
  Shanghai 119(41.0) 111(38.3) 60(20.7) <0.001 163(56.2) 127(43.8) <0.001
  Beijing 96(37.4) 108(42.0) 53(20.6)   153(59.5) 104(40.5)  
  Wuhan 208(64.0) 70(21.5) 47(14.5)   244(75.1) 81(24.9)  
  Xian 198(64.1) 71(23.0) 40(12.9)   213(68.9) 96(31.1)  
  Guangzhou 221(67.0) 92(27.9) 17(5.1)   238(72.1) 92(27.9)  
Region        
  Urban 374(49.3) 255(33.6) 130(17.1) <0.001 509(67.1) 250(32.9) 0.899
  Rural 468(62.2) 197(26.2) 87(11.6)   502(66.8) 250(33.2)  
Age (years)        
  18–29 264(75.0) 55(15.6) 33(9.4) <0.001 295(83.8) 57(16.2) <0.001
  30–39 214(58.6) 106(29.0) 45(12.3)   270(74.0) 95(26.0)  
  40–49 180(52.2) 113(32.7) 52(15.1)   219(63.5) 126(36.5)  
  50–59 101(44.9) 83(36.9) 41(18.2)   122(54.2) 103(45.8)  
  60–80 83(37.1) 95(42.4) 46(20.5)   105(46.9) 119(53.1)  
Marital status        
  Married 590(51.0) 385(33.3) 181(15.7) <0.001 724(62.6) 432(37.4) <0.001
  Unmarried 235(74.4) 52(16.5) 29(9.2)   264(83.5) 52(16.5)  
  Separated/divorced/widowed 16(42.1) 15(39.5) 7(18.4)   22(57.9) 16(42.1)  
Education        
  Primary school/uneducated 102(54.5) 60(32.1) 25(13.4) 0.021 109(58.3) 78(41.7) 0.026
  Secondary/high school 575(58.6) 277(28.2) 130(13.2)   666(67.8) 316(32.2)  
  College graduate 165(48.3) 115(33.6) 62(18.1)   236(69.0) 106(31.0)  
Occupationc        
  Office worker 249(52.0) 158(33.0) 72(15.0) 0.105 317(66.2) 162(33.8) 0.690
  Manual worker 591(57.5) 293(28.5) 144(14.0)   691(67.2) 337(32.8)  
Family income/month (Yuan)        
  ~1999 457(61.8) 185(25.0) 98(13.2) <0.001 500(67.6) 240(32.4) 0.801
  2000~ 316(50.9) 208(33.5) 97(15.6)   414(66.7) 207(33.3)  
  5000~ 66(45.5) 58(40.0) 21(14.5)   94(64.8) 51(35.2)  
Smokingd        
  Non-smokers 350(58.9) 170(28.6) 74(12.5) 0.028 426(71.7) 168(28.3) 0.001
  Smokers 492(53.6) 282(30.8) 143(15.6)   585(63.8) 332(36.2)  
Drinkinge        
  Non-drinkers 531(59.7) 242(27.2) 117(13.1) 0.001 629(70.7) 261(29.3) <0.001
  Drinkers 311(50.2) 209(33.7) 100(16.1)   381(61.5) 239(38.5)  
Physical activity        
  Never 115(50.9) 70(31.0) 41(18.1) 0.078 132(58.4) 94(41.6) 0.007
  <4 times/month 87(54.4) 51(31.9) 22(13.8)   115(71.9) 45(28.1)  
  ≥1 time/week 139(58.6) 64(27.0) 34(14.4)   171(72.1) 66(27.9)  
  ≥1 time/day 499(56.6) 265(30.0) 118(13.4)   591(67.0) 291(33.0)  
Hypertension        
  No 784(60.3) 364(28.0) 152(11.7) <0.001 916(70.5) 384(29.5) <0.001
  Yes 58(27.5) 88(41.7) 65(30.8)   95(45.0) 116(55.0)  
Angina pectoris        
  No 836(56.1) 440(29.6) 213(14.3) 0.036 1001(67.2) 488(32.8) 0.031
  Yes 6(27.3) 12(54.5) 4(18.2)   10(45.5) 12(54.5)  
Cerebrovascular disease        
  No 830(56.3) 436(29.6) 208(14.1) 0.005 992(67.3) 482(32.7) 0.042
  Yes 12(32.4) 16(43.3) 9(24.3)   19(51.4) 18(48.6)  
Chronic bronchitis        
  No 809(56.3) 427(29.7) 201(14.0) 0.026 972(67.6) 465(32.4) 0.008
  Yes 33(44.6) 25(33.8) 16(21.6)   39(52.7) 35(47.3)  
Rheumatoid arthritis        
  No 808(55.7) 433(29.8) 210(14.5) 0.693 974(67.1) 477(32.9) 0.379
  Yes 34(56.7) 19(31.7) 7(11.7)   37(61.7) 23(38.3)  
Osteoarthritis        
  No 826(56.0) 437(29.6) 213(14.4) 0.561 993(67.3) 483(32.7) 0.049
  Yes 16(45.7) 15(42.9) 4(11.4)   18(51.4) 17(48.6)  
Diabetes        
  No 832(56.9) 426(29.1) 205(14.0) <0.001 990(67.7) 473(32.3) <0.001
  Yes 10(20.8) 26(54.2) 12(25.0)   21(43.8) 27(56.2)  
  1. WC, waist circumference.
  2. WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.
  3. aCochran–Mantel–Haenszel test was used.
  4. bChi-square test was used.
  5. cOffice worker: individuals who engaged in one of the following occupations—government employees, professional or technician, students in school, and personnel. Manual worker: individuals who engaged in one of the following occupations—agricultural or fisheries workers, blue-collar worker, or personal services.
  6. dNon-smoker: individuals who had never smoked or had stopped smoking. Smoker: individuals who smoked at least 1 cigarette per day.
  7. eNon-drinker: individuals who did not drink alcohol. Drinker: individuals who drank at least 1 time per month.