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Table 1 Characteristics of women as categorized by WC and WHR

From: Abdominal obesity and its association with health-related quality of life in adults: a population-based study in five Chinese cities

N (%) WC categories (cm)a WHR categoriesb
Normal WC (<80) Mild abdominal obesity (80–90) Severe abdominal obesity (≥90) P-value Normal WHR (<0.85) Abdominal obesity (≥0.85) P-value
Total 936(55.9) 453(27.1) 284(17.0)   1018(60.9) 655(39.2)  
City        
  Shanghai 189(53.8) 111(31.6) 51(14.5) <0.001 218(62.1) 133(37.9) <0.001
  Beijing 151(45.5) 96(28.9) 85(25.6)   160(48.2) 172(51.8)  
  Wuhan 193(57.6) 85(25.4) 57(17.0)   207(61.8) 128(38.2)  
  Xian 179(53.4) 90(26.9) 66(19.7)   210(62.7) 125(37.3)  
  Guangzhou 224(70.0) 71(22.2) 25(7.8)   223(69.7) 97(30.3)  
Region        
  Urban 479(58.8) 230(28.2) 106(13.0) <0.001 546(67.0) 269(33.0) <0.001
  Rural 457(53.3) 223(26.0) 178(20.7)   472(55.0) 386(45.0)  
Age (years)        
  18–29 322(84.5) 49(12.9) 10(2.6) <0.001 307(80.6) 74(19.4) <0.001
  30–39 260(71.4) 81(22.3) 23(6.3)   277(76.1) 87(23.9)  
  40–49 204(49.9) 132(32.3) 73(17.8)   263(64.3) 146(35.7)  
  50–59 90(34.9) 95(36.8) 73(28.3)   106(41.1) 152(58.9)  
  60–80 60(23.0) 96(36.8) 105(40.2)   65(24.9) 196(75.1)  
Marital status        
  Married 687(52.3) 382(29.1) 244(18.6) <0.001 777(59.2) 536(40.80) <0.001
  Unmarried 213(87.0) 28(11.4) 4(1.6)   202(82.4) 43(17.6)  
  Separated/divorced/widowed 36(31.3) 43(37.4) 36(31.3)   39(33.9) 76(66.1)  
Education        
  Primary school/uneducated 136(35.5) 125(32.6) 122(31.9) <0.001 135(35.3) 248(64.7) <0.001
  Secondary/high school 578(58.0) 269(27.0) 149(15.0)   651(65.4) 345(34.6)  
  College graduate 222(75.5) 59(20.1) 13(4.4)   232(78.9) 62(21.1)  
Occupationc        
  Office worker 299(70.4) 89(20.9) 37(8.7) <0.001 318(74.8) 107(25.2) <0.001
  Manual worker 635(51.0) 364(29.2) 247(19.8)   700(56.2) 546(43.8)  
Family income/month (Yuan)        
  ~1999 439(49.6) 251(28.3) 196(22.1) <0.001 463(52.3) 423(47.7) <0.001
  2000~ 406(62.3) 171(26.2) 75(11.5)   459(70.4) 193(29.6)  
  5000~ 87(66.9) 30(23.1) 13(10.0)   91(70.0) 39(30.0)  
Smokingd        
  Non-smokers 918(56.2) 443(27.1) 272(16.7) 0.044 999(61.2) 634(38.8) 0.080
  Smokers 18(45.0) 10(25.0) 12(30.0)   19(47.5) 21(52.5)  
Drinkinge        
  Non-drinkers 907(56.0) 436(27.0) 275(17.0) 0.796 982(60.7) 636(39.3) 0.477
  Drinkers 29(52.7) 17(30.9) 9(16.4)   36(65.5) 19(34.5)  
Physical activity        
  Never 175(58.3) 80(26.7) 45(15.0) <0.001 178(59.3) 122(40.7) <0.001
  <4 times/month 99(68.8) 28(19.4) 17(11.8)   106(73.6) 38(26.4)  
  ≥1 time/week 155(64.3) 56(23.2) 30(12.5)   168(69.7) 73(30.3)  
  ≥1 time/day 505(51.3) 288(29.2) 192(19.5)   565(57.4) 420(42.6)  
Hypertension        
  No 898(61.2) 383(26.1) 187(12.7) <0.001 965(65.7) 503(34.3) <0.001
  Yes 38(18.5) 70(34.2) 97(47.3)   53(25.8) 152(74.2)  
Angina pectoris        
  No 932(56.8) 443(27.0) 265(16.2) <0.001 1013(61.8) 627(38.2) <0.001
  Yes 4(12.1) 10(30.3) 19(57.6)   5(15.2) 28(84.8)  
Cerebrovascular disease        
  No 924(57.1) 429(26.5) 265(16.4) <0.001 1005(62.1) 613(37.9) <0.001
  Yes 12(21.8) 24(43.6) 19(34.6)   13(23.6) 42(76.4)  
Chronic bronchitis        
  No 909(56.8) 433(27.0) 259(16.2) <0.001 988(61.7) 613(38.3) <0.001
  Yes 27(37.5) 20(27.8) 25(34.7)   30(41.7) 42(58.3)  
Rheumatoid arthritis        
  No 906(57.3) 428(27.0) 248(15.7) <0.001 982(62.1) 600(37.9) <0.001
  Yes 30(33.0) 25(27.5) 36(39.5)   36(39.6) 55(60.4)  
Osteoarthritis        
  No 909(56.9) 427(26.7) 261(16.3) <0.001 989(61.9) 608(38.1) <0.001
  Yes 27(35.5) 26(34.2) 23(30.3)   29(38.2) 47(61.8)  
Diabetes        
  No 929(57.4) 438(27.0) 252(15.6) <0.001 1007(62.2) 612(37.8) <0.001
  Yes 7(12.9) 15(27.8) 32(59.3)   11(20.4) 43(79.6)  
  1. WC, waist circumference.
  2. WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.
  3. aCochran–Mantel–Haenszel test was used.
  4. bChi-square test was used.
  5. cOffice worker: individuals who engaged in one of the following occupations—government employees, professional or technician, students in school, and personnel. Manual worker: individuals who engaged in one of the following occupations—agricultural or fisheries workers, blue-collar worker, or personal services.
  6. dNon-smoker: individuals who had never smoked or had stopped smoking. Smoker: individuals who smoked at least 1 cigarette per day.
  7. eNon-drinker: individuals who did not drink alcohol. Drinker: individuals who drank at least 1 time per month.