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Table 2 Sociodemographic, clinical, functional and psychological characteristics of COPD patients with and without ED visits or hospitalizations in the first and the second year of follow-up

From: Utility of brief questionnaires of health-related quality of life (Airways Questionnaire 20 and Clinical COPD Questionnaire) to predict exacerbations in patients with asthma and COPD

  1st year 2nd year
ED visits Hospitalizations ED visits Hospitalizations
0 ≥1 0 ≥1 0 ≥1 0 ≥1
n = 79 n = 21 n = 87 n = 13 n = 79 n = 21 n = 81 n = 19
Sociodemographic variables         
Age, year 66.0 ± 7.9 65.5 ± 10.2 65.3 ± 8.7 70.1 ± 5.0 65.2 ± 8.8 68.7 ± 6.1 65.3 ± 8.6 69.0 ± 6.8
Female, n (%) 5 (6) 2 (9) 7 (8) 0 (0) 6 (7) 1 (5) 6 (7) 1 (5)
Age at diagnosis, year 56.8 ± 9.1 55.4 ± 7.5 56.7 ± 8.8 55.8 ± 8.3 56.1 ± 8.7 58.5 ± 9.0 56.3 ± 8.8 57.7 ± 8.7
Disease duration, year 9.1 ± 7.3 9.6 ± 7.7 8.4 ± 6.8 14.3 ± 8.8* 9.0 ± 6.9 10.1 ± 8.8 8.8 ± 7.0 10.8 ± 8.5
Active smoking, n (%) 15(19) 8 (38)** 20(23) 3(23) 19(24) 4(19) 17 (22) 5 (26)
Mean pack-year 63.0 ± 25.1 59.6 ± 27.3 62.9 ± 25.1 58.1 ± 28.3 63.2 ± 2.2 59.1 + 27.0 61.1 ± 24.6 67.4 ± 29.2
Education level, n (%)         
Illiterate/Primary School 52 (66) 16 (76) 57 (66) 11 (85) 52 (66) 16 (76) 52 (64) 16 (84)
Secondary School/University 27 (34) 5 (24) 30 (34) 2 (15) 27 (34) 5 (24) 29 (36) 3 (16)
Socioeconomic level, n (%)         
Low/Medium-low 31 (39) 13 (62) ** 36 (41) 8 (61)** 34 (43) 10 (48) 34 (42) 10 (53)
Medium-medium/Medium-high/High 48 (61) 8 (38) 51 (59) 5 (39) 45 (57) 11 (52) 47 (58) 9 (47)
Employment status, n (%)         
Working 11 (14) 4 (19) 15 (17) 0 (0) 14 (18) 1 (5) 15 (18) 0
Retired/Disability 68 (86) 17 (81) 72 (83) 13 (100) 65 (82) 20 (95) 66 (81) 19 (100)*
Place of residence, n (%)         
Rural 21 (27) 5 (24) 24 (28) 2 (15) 23 (29) 3 (14) 21 (26) 5 (26)
Urban 58 (73) 16 (76) 63 (72) 11 (85) 56 (71) 18 (86) 60 (74) 14 (74)
Marital status n (%)         
Married/unmarried partner 65 (82) 18 (86) 73 (84) 10 (77) 66 (83) 17 (81) 67 (83) 16 (84)
Single/separated/divorced/widowed 14 (18) 3 (14) 14 (16) 3 (23) 13 (16) 4 (19) 14 (17) 3 (16)
Clinical-functional variables         
BMI, kg/m2 28.4 ± 4.6 26.0 ± 4.1** 28.2 ± 4.5 25.4 ± 4.4** 28.3 ± 4.6 26.1 ± 4.3 28.1 ± 4.6 26.7 ± 4.7
MRC dyspnea scale, n (%)         
Grade 0-1-2 68 (86) 15 (72) 74 (85) 12 (92) 66 (84) 17 (81) 69 (85) 14 (74)
Grade 3-4 11 (14) 6(28) 13 (15) 1 (8) 13 (16) 4 (19) 12 (15) 5 (26)
Spirometry         
FVC post (%) 92.9 ± 2.0 89.5 ± 21.2 92.0 ± 21.5 93.4 ± 25.8 91.6 ± 21.2 94.7 ± 25.2 93.7 ± 22.5 85.7 ± 18.2
FEV1 post (%) 59.5 ± 19.3 57.5 ± 20.5 59.9 ± 18.8 54.0 ± 23.6 59.3 ± 18.3 58.2 ± 24.3 60.8 ± 19.6 51.7 ± 17.6
6MWT, m 394.2 ± 86.5 341.1 ± 120.7** 395.1 ± 83.6 302.3 ± 136.3 393.1 ± 88.4 345.1 ± 117.0 396.8 ± 83.8 324.1 ± 124.3
BODE index (0–10) 1.9 ± 1.9 2.8 ± 2.5 1.87 ± 1.8 3.8 ± 2.5* 2.0 ± 1.8 2.5 ± 2.7 1.9 ± 1.8 3.2 ± 2.4*
GOLD classification         
GOLD 1-2 46 (58) 12 (57) 53 (61) 5 (38) 48 (61) 10 (48) 49 (60) 9 (47)
GOLD 3-4 33 (42) 9 (43) 34 (39) 8 (62) 31 (39) 11 (52) 32 (40) 10 (53)
Hospitalizations previous year 0.3 ± 0.7 1.0 ± 1.8* 0.25 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 2.1Ŧ 0.3 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 1.8 0.2 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 1.9Ŧ
ED visits previous year 1.0 ± 1.6 0 ± 1.7 1.0 ± 1.5 2.2 ± 3.2 1.2 ± 1.9 1.2 ± 1.9 1.0 ± 1.5 1.9 ± 2.8
Psychological variables         
HADS anxiety 3.3 ± 3.2 5.9 ± 5.9 3.8 ± 3.9 4.1 ± 5.3 4.0 ± 3.9 3.3 ± 4.5 4.0 ± 4.1 3.3 ± 4.1
HADS depression 3.6 ± 3.5 5.5 ± 47 3.9 ± 3.7 4.5 ± 4.8 4.0 ± 3.9 3.8 ± 3.9 3.9 ± 3.7 4.3 ± 4.4
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (X ± SD), unless otherwise indicated.
  2. BMI body mass index, MRC scale Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, FVC post forced vital capacity post-bronchodilatation, FEV1 post forced expiratory volumen in 1-s post-bronchodilatation, 6MWT 6-min walking test, BODE index Body mass index, Degree of Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise Capacity Index; GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.
  3. P values: comparisons between groups were tested using the Pearson´s X2or Fisher´s Exact test (categorical variables) or ANOVA (normally distributed continuous variables) and Mann–Whitney U test (non-normally distributed variables or non-parametric data).
  4. ** p < .1 *p < .05; †p < .01; Ŧp < .001.