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Table 1 Sociodemographic, clinical, functional and psychological characteristics of asthmatic patients with and without ED visits or hospitalizations in the first and the second year of follow-up

From: Utility of brief questionnaires of health-related quality of life (Airways Questionnaire 20 and Clinical COPD Questionnaire) to predict exacerbations in patients with asthma and COPD

  1st year 2nd year
ED visits Hospitalizations ED visits Hospitalizations
0 ≥1 0 ≥1 0 ≥1 0 ≥1
n = 94 n = 14 n = 100 n = 8 n = 101 n = 7 n = 105 n = 3
Sociodemographic variables         
Age, year 51.5 ± 18.3 50.4 ± 17.1 51.0 ± 18.4 56.5 ± 12.2 51.5 ± 18.4 49.1 ± 13.2 51.5 ± 17.9 46.3 ± 26.1
Female, n (%) 48 (51) 12 (86)* 54 (54) 6 (75) 54 (53) 6 (86) 58 (55) 2 (67)
Age at diagnosis, year 30.7 ± 21.7 28.1 ± 22.1 29.8 ± 21.8 37.0 ± 20.7 30.7 ± 22.0 24.8 ± 16.2 30.4 ± 21.6 26.6 ± 30.9
Disease duration, year 17.0 ± 15.6 22.5 ± 19.3 17.8 ± 16.2 16.7 ± 16.1 17.2 ± 16.1 24.3 ± 16.3 17.6 ± 16.4 20.0 ± 5.3
Active smoking, n (%) 8 (8.5) 2 (14) 10 (10) 0 (0) 9 (10) 1 (11) 10 (9) 0 (0)
Mean pack-year 12.3 ± 6.8 9 ± 7.4 11.9 ± 6.8 11.0 ± 12.7 11.8 ± 6.9 12.3 ± 9.3 12.0 ± 6.9 5.0 ± 0.1
Education level, n (%)         
Illiterate/Primary School 48 (51) 9 (64) 51 (51) 6 (75) 53 (52) 4 (57) 56 (53) 1 (33)
Secondary School/University 46 (49) 5 (36) 49 (49) 2 (25) 48 (48) 3 (43) 49 (47) 2 (67)
Socioeconomic level, n (%)         
Low/Medium-low 31 (33) 2 (14) 30 (30) 3 (37.5) 31 (31) 2 (29) 33 (31) 0 (0)
Medium-medium/Medium-high/High 63 (67) 12 (86) 70 (70) 5 (62.5) 70 (69) 5 (71) 72 (69) 3 (100)
Employment status, n (%)         
Working 30 (32) 3 (21) 32 (32) 1 (13) 31(31) 2 (29) 32 (30) 1 (33)
Retired/Disability 64 (68) 11 (79) 68 (68) 7 (87) 70 (69) 5 (71) 73 (70) 2 (67)
Place of residence, n (%)         
Rural 27 (29) 3 (21) 28 (28) 2 (25) 29 (29) 1 (14) 30 (28.5) 0 (0)
Urban 67 (71) 11 (79) 72 (72) 6 (75) 72 (71) 6 (86) 75 (71) 3 (100)
Marital status (%)         
Single/separated/divorced/widowed 31 (33) 4 (28) 34 (34) 1 (12.5) 33 (33) 2 (28) 34 (32) 1 (33)
Married/unmarried partner 63 (67) 10 (72) 66 (66) 7 (87.5) 68 (67) 5 (72) 71 (68) 2 (66)
Clinical-functional variables         
BMI, kg/m2 MRC dyspnea scale, n (%) 28.0 ± 4.8 27.9 ± 5.3 27.7 ± 4.8 31.2 ± 3.4* 27.9 ± 4.6 29.0 ± 7.7 28.0 ± 4.9 26.44 ± 2.6
Grade 0-1-2 82 (90) 9 (75) 86 (89) 5 (83) 86 (88) 5 (100) 88 (88) 3 (100)
Grade 3-4 9 (10) 3 (25) 11 (11) 1 (17) 12 (12) 0 (0) 12 (12) 0 (0)
Spirometry         
FVC post (%) 104.8 ± 17.8 106.1 ± 13.4 105.0 ± 17.1 105.8 ± 21.1 92.9 + 0 .2 89.5 ± 21.2 92.0 ± 21.5 93.4 ± 25.8
FEV1 post (%) 95.6 ± 21.7 101.6 ± 15.5 96.1 ± 21.0 100.5 ± 22.0 97.0 + 21.1 87.0 + 19.0 96.5 + 21.1 82.3 + 21.0
GINA classification         
GINA I-II 21 (22) 2 (14) 23 (23) 0 (0)* 22 ( 22) 1 (14) 23 (22) 0 (0)
GINA III-IV 73 (78) 12 (86) 77 (77) 8 (100) 79 ( 78) 6 (86) 82 (78) 3 (100)
Previous year exacerbations         
Hospitalizations 0.2 ± 0.4 0.3 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.5Ŧ 0.2 ± 0.4 0.4 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.6
ED visits 1.0 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.9 1.0 ± 1.4 2.4 ± 1.5 1.1 ± 1.5 1.2 ± 1.7 1.1 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 2.0*
Psychological variables         
HADS anxiety 5.5 + 4.3 8.8 ± 3.3 5.8 ± 4.3 3.5 ± 3.2** 3.3 ± 3.2 5.9 ± 5.9 3.8 ± 3.9 4.1 ± 5.3
HADS depression 3.4 ± 3.3 5.7 ± 3.3 7.9 ± 3.4 6.5 ± 4.3* 3.6 ± 3.5 5.5 ± 4.7 3.9 ± 3.7 4.5 ± 4.8*
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (X ± SD), unless otherwise indicated.
  2. BMI body mass index, MRC scale Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, FVC post forced vital capacity post-bronchodilatation, FEV 1 post forced expiratory volumen in 1-s post-bronchodilatation, GINA Global Initiative for Asthma.
  3. P values: comparisons between groups were tested using the Pearson´s X2 or Fisher´s Exact test (categorical variables) or ANOVA (normally distributed continuous variables) and Mann–Whitney U test (non- normally distributed variables or non-parametric data).
  4. ** p < .1 *p < .05; †p < .01; Ŧp < .001.