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Table 3 The pattern coefficients from a principal axis factoring using promax rotation

From: Assessing the overuse of antibiotics in children in Saudi Arabia: validation of the parental perception on antibiotics scale (PAPA scale)

Factors and items Items loadings
Factor 1: Knowledge and beliefs  
1- Antibiotics are needed for: the common cold .627
2- Antibiotics are needed for: sore throat .631
3- Antibiotics treat viral infections .461
4- Antibiotics can cure ALL types of infections (viral, bacterial, & fungal) .574
5- When I visit the doctor for my child’s common cold I expect a prescription for medication including antibiotics .594
6- Antibiotics are helpful in treating common colds among children .687
7- Children with common colds get better faster when antibiotics are given .749
8- In the past, antibiotics have cured my child’s cold symptoms .628
9- My child will be sick for a longer time if he/she doesn’t receive an antibiotic for cough, cold, or flu symptoms. .613
10- If my child has a cold or cough it is best to get an antibiotic to get rid of it .672
Factor 2: Behaviours:  
11- Antibiotics should be sold without a prescription 443
12- In the past, I have stopped giving my child an antibiotic because my friends/family advised me to .426
13- I get my child’s antibiotics from the pharmacy without a prescription .809
14- I generally store antibiotics at home for when they are needed .534
15- In the past, I have given my child an antibiotic without a prescription when he/she had a high temperature for a few days .874
16- In the past, I have changed doctors when my doctor did not prescribe antibiotics for my child .623
Factor 3: Sources of information:  
17- I get my health-related information from the pharmacist .479
18- I get my health-related information from nurses and/or other allied health professionals .472
19- I get my health-related information from books and/or scientific literature .759
20- I get my health-related information from family and/or friends .621
21- I get my health-related information from the internet .773
22- I get my health-related information from the media: TV, radio, newspapers .789
23- I get my health-related information from my previous experience .556
Factor 4: Adherence:  
24- It is not important to follow antibiotics doses strictly .465
25- Skipping one or two antibiotic doses doesn’t make much difference .716
26- If my child gets better I can reduce the dose of antibiotics .902
27- If my child’s condition is mild I would give the antibiotic according what I see is suitable for his/her condition .517
28- In the past, I have stopped giving my child an antibiotic because he/she felt better .697
Factor 5: Awareness about antibiotics resistance  
29- Antibiotics treat bacterial infections .446
30- Antibiotics are generally safe -.422
31- Antibiotics can be harmful to one’s health .444
32- Some germs are becoming harder to treat with antibiotics .446
33- Some germs can become resistant to antibiotics if they are taken in inadequate doses .674
Factor 6: Parent’s perception on doctors’ prescribing behaviors  
34- I think doctors prescribe too many antibiotics .441
35- Doctors don’t inform parents well about their child’s condition .622
36- Doctors aren’t well informed about judicious antibiotics use .674
Items excluded due to only trivial loadings on all factors (coefficient < 0.4):  
37- Antibiotics are needed for: ear infection  
38- If my child is asleep I will not wake him/her up for the dose of antibiotic  
39- In the past, I have stopped giving my child an antibiotic because he/she had side effects  
40- In the past, I have taken my child to a doctor when he/she had a high temperature for a few days  
41- I get my child’s antibiotics from the pharmacy with a prescription  
42- In the past, I have asked the doctor to prescribe medication for my child’s common cold  
43- I get my health-related information from my doctor  
44- When I visit the doctor for my child’s common cold and do not get antibiotics, I get dissatisfied  
45- Frequency of antibiotic use does not influence its effectiveness  
  1. The likely construct associated with each factor is also included.