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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of study participants

From: Assessing the overuse of antibiotics in children in Saudi Arabia: validation of the parental perception on antibiotics scale (PAPA scale)

Variable Mothers N = 167 (%) Father N = 70 (%) Total N = 237 (%)
Age    
  20 – 30 22 (13.2) 0 (0) 22 (9.3)
  31 – 40 86 (51.5) 20 (28.6) 106 (44.7)
  41 – 50 36 (21.6) 31 (44.3) 67 (28.3)
  >50 0 (0) 15 (21.4) 15 (6.3)
  Missing 23 (13.8) 4 (5.7) 27 (11.4)
No. of children*    
  1 child 43 (26.1) 20 (8.6) 63 (27.0)
  2 children 49 (29.7) 19 (8.2) 68 (29.2)
  3 children 57 (34.5) 17 (7.3) 74 (31.8)
  4 children 11 (6.7) 8 (3.4) 19 (8.2)
  5 children 5 (3.0) 4 (1.7) 9 (3.9)
  Missing 2 (1.2) 2 (2.9) 4 (1.7)
Educational level    
  Illiterate 2 (1.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.9)
  No formal education 2 (1.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.9)
  Junior high school 7 (4.2) 7 (10.1) 14 (6.0)
  High school 26 (15.8) 6 (8.7) 32 (13.7)
  Diploma or bachelor 125 (75.8) 38 (55.1) 163 (13.7)
  Higher degrees 3 (1.8) 18 (26.1) 21 (9.0)
  Missing 2 (1.2) 1 (1.4) 3 (1.3)
Employment    
  Unemployed 3 (1.8) 2 (2.9) 5 (2.1)
  Employed 91 (55.5) 55 (78.6) 146 (62.4)
  Student 6 (3.7) 0 (0) 6 (2.6)
  Housewife 56 (34.1) 0 (0) 56 (23.9)
  Self-employed 5 (3.0) 7 (10.0) 12 (5.1)
  Retired 3 (1.8) 6 (8.6) 9 (3.8)
  Missing 3 (1.8) 0 (0) 3 (1.3)
Monthly income**    
  Low 12 (8.0) 9 (13.8) 21 (9.8)
  Low middle 53 (35.3) 20 (30.8) 73 (34.0)
  Middle 54 (36.0) 16 (24.6) 70 (32.6)
  High middle 19 (12.7) 12 (18.5) 31 (14.4)
  High 12 (8.0) 8 (12.3) 20 (9.3)
  Missing 17 (10.2) 5 (7.1) 22 (9.3)
Trained in health-related fields    
  Yes 27 (16.5) 10 (14.7) 37 (15.9)
  No 137 (83.5) 58 (85.3) 195 (84.1)
  Missing 3 (1.8) 2 (2.9) 5 (2.1)
Geographical background    
  Eastern region 91 (59.5) 34 (55.7) 125 (58.4)
  Western region 13 (8.5) 7 (11.5) 20 (9.3)
  Middle region 23 (15.0) 10 (16.4) 33 (15.4)
  Northern region 2 (1.3) 3 (4.9) 5 (2.3)
  Southern region 24 (15.7) 7 (11.5) 31 (14.5)
  Missing 14 (8.4) 9 (12.9) 23 (9.7)
  1. *Children less than 12 years old.
  2. ** Income: low: <SR4000 (<$1066), Low middle: SR4000-11,999 ($1,066-3,199), Middle: SR12,000–21,999 ($3,199–5,866), High middle: SR22,000–34,999 ($5,866–9,332), High: > SR35,000 (> $9332).