Skip to main content

Table 2 Final multivariable regression model for diabetes-specific quality of life

From: Mental health issues decrease diabetes-specific quality of life independent of glycaemic control and complications: findings from Australia’s living with diabetes cohort study

Variables N (%) a Adjusted least squares Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI p-values
   Mean    
Complications and comorbidites
Number of complicationsb      <0.001
 0 1579 (46.1) −1.25 −1.33 −1.17  
 1 828 (24.2) −1.56 −1.66 −1.45  
 2 518 (15.1) −1.92 −2.06 −1.78  
 3 284 (8.3) −2.17 −2.36 −1.98  
 4 or more 215 (6.3) −2.50 −2.72 −2.27  
Depression      0.001
 No 2615 (76.4) −1.53 −1.59 −1.47  
 Yes 809 (23.6) −1.75 −1.87 −1.64  
Anxiety      <0.001
 No 3081 (90.0) −1.54 −1.59 −1.48  
 Yes 343 (10.0) −1.97 −2.15 −1.79  
Schizophrenia      0.016
 No 3405 (99.5) −1.58 −1.63 −1.52  
 Yes 19 (0.5) −2.47 −3.20 −1.75  
Non-melanoma cancers      0.008
 No 3107 (90.7) −1.60 −1.66 −1.55  
 Yes 317 (9.3) −1.35 −1.53 −1.18  
Other significant demographic and clinical covariates      
Household income      <0.001
 <$20 K 925 (27.2) −1.82 −1.93 −1.71  
 20 K – 40 K 863 (25.2) −1.50 −1.61 −1.39  
 40 K – 80 K 772 (22.6) −1.42 −1.53 −1.30  
 80 K – 120 K 309 (9.0) −1.36 −1.54 −1.17  
 120 K – 160 K 108 (3.2) −1.25 −1.55 −0.95  
 >160 K 67 (2.0) −0.91 −1.30 −0.53  
 Missing/do not know 380 (11.1) −1.92 −2.08 −1.76  
Marital status      0.018
 Never married 208 (6.1) −1.32 −1.54 −1.09  
 Co-habiting 2450 (71.6) −1.62 −1.69 −1.56  
 Secondarily single 766 (22.4) −1.52 −1.64 −1.40  
HbA1c result      <0.001
 Under 6.5% 796 (23.3) −1.38 −1.49 −1.27  
 6.5% - 7.0% 891 (26.0) −1.57 −1.67 −1.46  
 7.1% - 8.0% 746 (21.8) −1.62 −1.73 −1.50  
 Over 8.0% 453 (13.2) −1.95 −2.10 −1.80  
 Do not know 538 (15.7) −1.55 −1.68 −1.41  
Age quartile      <0.001
 Q1: 22–55 y 858 (25.1) −2.07 −2.18 −1.95  
 Q2: 56–62 y 871 (25.4) −1.67 −1.78 −1.56  
 Q3: 63–69 y 877 (25.6) −1.43 −1.53 −1.32  
 Q4: 70–94 y 818 (23.9) −1.15 −1.27 −1.03  
Treatment status      <0.001
 Insulin requiring 630 (18.4) −2.01 −2.15 −1.88  
 Oral medications 2078 (60.7) −1.58 −1.64 −1.51  
 Diet and/or exercise only 716 (20.9) −1.22 −1.34 −1.10  
  1. Model is adjusted for the five control variables: Age and treatment status were significant; sampling region, sex and duration of diabetes were non-significant and are not shown.
  2. a185 participants (5.1%) had missing data for one or more covariates and are not included in this analysis.
  3. bincludes eye disease, kidney disease, nerve damage or neuropathy, heart disease, stroke or transient ischemic attack, erectile dysfunction, poor circulation, foot ulcers, and gangrene or amputation.