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Table 2 Total costs per patient, associated with incontinence in general

From: Health-related quality of life and economic impact of urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition: a systematic review

Citation Country Perspective Time-frame Cost components reported Cost year UI costs Inflated 2010 Costs per year (2010)
        Total costs  
     Labor Costs    
Green 2003 [34] Australia, New Zealand Provider 1 day Rehabilitation staff 1996 $185.60/day AUD $267.40/day AUD *
Geriatric evaluation staff $164.62/day AUD $237.27/day AUD *
Morris 2005 [33] Australia Provider 1 day Nursing staff supervision 2003 $32.4 AUD $39.42 AUD *
Frantz et al. 2003 [41] US Provider 1 day Nursing staff supervision 1995 $112 $197.30 $72,014.50
Nursing assistant time for toileting $1,361 $2397.56 $5,208.55
($8.10/day) ($14.27/day)
Prasopsanti et al. 2007 [41] Thailand Society 1 yr Incremental labor costs in LTC 2002 $4.52/shift $6.15/shift $6,741.87/yr
$13.57/day $18.56/day
$4,957/yr $6,741.87/yr
Shih et al. 2003 [40] US Provider 1 yr Labor costs in LTC 2005 UI = $9.96 Urinary Incontinent = $13.55 UI = $13.55
Occasionally Incontinent = $11.90
Occasionally Incontinent = $8.75 Occasionally Incontinent = $11.90 Frequently Incontinent = $14.42
Frequently Incontinent = $10.60 Frequently Incontinent = $14.42
     Diagnosis    
Papanicolaou 2005 [35] Germany Payer 1 yr Diagnosis 2004 €42 €46.14 $61.27 USD
Spain Diagnosis €186 €216.12 $286.98
UK/Ireland Diagnosis €6 €7 $9.30
Tediosi 2000 [37] Italy Payer 1 yr Diagnosis 1997 L76.142 L100.27 $133.15 USD
     Routine Incontinence Management ( Supplies and Medication)    
Frantz et al. 2003 [39] US Provider 6 mo Barrier cream 1995 $745 $1,312.40 $2,624.80
Disposable briefs $723 $1,273.65 $2,547.30
Bed pads $304 $535.53 $1,071.06
Incontinence management $9.09/day $16.01 $5,843.65
Total incontinence management $1,372 $2,416.94 $4,833.88
Irwin et al. 2009 [36] Canada Provider 1 yr Incontinence pad usage 2005 €56 €60.97 $80.96
Germany Incontinence pad usage €66 €71.41 $94.82
Italy Incontinence pad usage €102 €112.12 $148.88
Spain Incontinence pad usage €102 €114.65 $152.24
Sweden Incontinence pad usage €80 €86.26 $114.54
UK Incontinence pad usage €48 €54.95 $72.97
Morris 2005 [33] Australia Provider 1 day Consumables 2003 $6.8 AUD $8.27 AUD *
Total median daily cost for UI $36.2 AUD $44.04 AUD *
Papanicolaou 2005 [35] Germany Payer 1 yr Pad usage 2004 €235 €258.14 $342.78
Conservative care €0 €0 $0
Medications €107 €117.54 $156.08
Spain Pad usage €235 €273.05 $362.58
Conservative care €19 €22.08 $29.32
Medications €88 €102.25 $135.78
UK/Ireland Pad usage €55 €64.26 $85.33
Conservative care €42 €49.07 $65.16
Medications €125 €146.04 $193.93
Prasopsanti et al. 2007 [41] Thailand Patient 1 wk Pad usage 2005 $3.7 USD $4.45 USD $231.40
Subak et al. 2006 [42] US Patient 1 wk Personal care resources 2005 $6.57 USD $7.90 USD $410.80 USD
Tediosi 2000 [37] Italy Payer 1 yr Conservative care 1997 L353.523 L465.526 $618.17
Medications L25.412 L33.463 $44.44
Wefer et al. 2010 [15] Germany Payer 1 yr Urinary reservoir 2006 €0.70/day €0.74 $358.66
Pad usage €1.41/day €1.50 $727.02
     Comorbidities    
Irwin et al. 2009 [36] Canada Payer 1 yr Comorbidities 2005 €19 €20.69 $27.47
Germany Comorbidities €21 €22.86 $30.36
Italy Comorbidities €9 €9.80 $13.01
Spain Comorbidities €7 €7.62 $10.12
Sweden Comorbidities €35 €38.11 $50.61
UK Comorbidities €13 €14.15 $18.79
Wefer et al. 2010 [15] Germany Payer 1 yr UTI medications 2006 €162.71/yr €173.28 $230.10
     Physician Visits and Hospitalizations    
Papanicolaou 2005 [35] Germany Payer 1 yr Office visits 2004 €45 €49.43 $65.64
  Surgery €95 €104.35 $138.57
Spain Office visits €168 €195.20 $259.20
  Surgery €103 €119.68 $158.92
UK/Ireland Office visits €95 €110.99 $147.38
  Surgery €40 €46.73 $62.05
Tediosi 2000 [36] Italy Payer 1 yr Hospitalizations 1997 L19.814 L26.09 $34.64
Thom et al. 2005 [38] US Payer 1 y Hospitalizations, physician visits, ED visits 1998 $7,702 USD $12,357.43 USD $12,357.43
     Accommodations    
Irwin et al. 2009 [36] Canada Payer 1 yr Nursing home 2005 €385 €419.15 $556.59
Germany Nursing home €1,038 €1,130.10 $1,500.65
Italy Nursing home €1,580 €1,720.19 $2,284.22
Spain Nursing home €30 €32.66 $43.37
Sweden Nursing home €562 €611.87 $812.50
UK Nursing home €381 €414.81 $550.82
Prasopsanti et al. 2007 [41] Thailand Patient 1 yr Transportation 2002 $198.12 $238.11 $238.11
  1. * Costs were not extrapolated for this study because costs from the study were costs for sub-acute care, not routine care.
  2. UI = urinary incontinence; LTC = long-term care facility; UTI = urinary tract infection; ED = emergency department.