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Table 1 Studies on the economic burden associated with incontinence

From: Health-related quality of life and economic impact of urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition: a systematic review

Citation; CEBM Evidence grade [9] Study design/methodology Cost data source Country Populations
Frantz et al. 2003 [39]; 2 Secondary data analysis Medical records US Residents of long-term care facility
• N = 63
• Mean age 87 ± 7 yr
• 77% were female
• 54% were incontinent
Green et al. 2003 [34]; 3 Retrospective analysis Registry Australia 6773 episodes of care provided to 6455 rehabilitation and geriatric evaluation and management patients
New Zealand
Irwin et al. 2008 [36]; 3 Economic cost of illness model; included costs for 2002 ICS-defined OAB and urgency UI-related comorbidities and nursing home costs Economic model Canada EPIC survey population with OAB or urgent UI
Germany
Italy • Aged 18+ yr
Spain
Sweden
UK
Morris et al. 2005 [33]; 3 Prospective burden of illness study Prospective chart data Australia Incontinent patients
• Mean age 85 (range 74–91) yr
Papanicolaou et al. 2005 [35]; 3 Prospective urinary incontinence research (PURE) is a non-interventional, longitudinal, prospective, observational, multicentre, multinational study to determine the direct cost for patients with UI Prospective survey data Germany Patients with UI
Spain • Germany: n = 2696, mean age 65.1 ± 13.4 yr
UK/Ireland
• Spain: n = 2127, mean age 57.9 ± 12.7 yr
• UK/Ireland: n = 1070, mean age 60.1 ± 14.3 yr
Prasopsanti et al. 2007 [41]; 3 Economic model using diagnostic and treatment algorithms from clinical practice guidelines and current disease prevalence data Economic model Thailand Patients with UI (prevalence estimates used in model derived from elsewhere)
Shih et al. 2003 [40]; 3 Prospective study Prospective survey data US Patients with UI in long-term care facilities
Subak et al. 2006 [42]; 3 Cross-sectional study Prospective survey data US Women with UI
• N = 293
• Mean age 56 ±11 yr
Tediosi et al. 2000 [37]; 3 Cross-sectional study/home interview with costs quantified for stress UI and other types of UI separately Interview data and retrospective database (Italian National Health Service tariffs) Italy Women with UI
• N = 229
Age >40 yr
Thom et al. 2005 [38]; 3 Database study Retrospective database US Women with UI
• N = N/A (combination of large public and private population data sources, including CMS, MEPS, NHANES, NCHS, VA, NACHRI, and MarketScan)
• Age >60 yr
Wefer et al. 2010 [15]; 2 Multicentre, cross-sectional, retrospective cohort study Retrospective chart review Germany Neurological disorders:
SCI, 80.8%
MS, 5.2%
Spina bifida, 14.0%
• N = 214
     • Mean age 38 (14.8) yr
  1. UI = urinary incontinence; OAB = overactive bladder; CEBM = Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine; CMS = Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; MEPS = Medical Expenditure Panel Survey; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; VA = Department of Veterans Affairs; NACHRI = National Association of Children’s Hospitals and Related Institutions.