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Table 1 Baseline patient demographics and disease characteristics

From: Responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire to disability change: a longitudinal study

  Total sample° Worsened patients* Non-worsened patients*  
  N = 580 N = 107 N = 417 p
Female, n (%) 419 (72.2) 75 (70.1) 300 (71.9) 0.71
Age (years) M (SD) 41.3 (10.2) 43.2 (10.2) 40.9 (10.1) 0.02
Min, max 18, 71 19, 64 18, 69  
Marital status, n (%) Cohabiting/married Divorced/separated/single/widowed 393 (67.8) 73 (68.2) 282 (67.6) 0.91
187 (32.2) 34 (31.8) 73 (68.2)
Employment status, n (%) Employed 335 (57.8) 59 (55.1) 241 (57.8) 0.62
Unemployed/homemaker/retired/student 245 (42.2) 48 (44.9) 176 (42.2)
Educational level, n (%) Elementary school 113 (19.5) 31 (28.4) 76 (18.2) 0.03
College 81 (14.0) 9 (8.3) 61 (14.6)
High school/university 386 (66.6) 67 (63.3) 280 (67.1)
EDSS score M (SD) 2.9 (1.9) 3.5 (2.2) 2.8 (1.8) <10 -3
Median 2.5 4.0 2.0
Min, max 0.0, 7.5 0.0, 7.0 0.0, 7.0
MS course, n (%) Relapsing-remitting 510 (87.9) 79 (73.8) 381 (91.4) <10 -3
Secondary progressive 53 (9.1) 18 (16.8) 30 (7.2)
Primary progressive 12 (2.1) 8 (7.5) 2 (0.5)
Primary relapsing 5 (0.9) 2 (1.9) 4 (1.0)
Time since first MS symptom (years) M (SD) 10.0 (7.5) 10.2 (8.1) 9.9 (7.2) 0.98
Min, max 0, 45 0, 45 0.0, 40
Number of relapses in previous 2 years M (SD) 1.3 (1.4) 1.4 (1.6) 1.3 (1.3) 0.33
0 187 (32.2) 37 (34.6) 135 (32.4)
1 185 (31.9) 27 (25.2) 137 (32.9)
2 123 (21.2) 23 (21.5) 87 (20.9)
> = 3 85 (14.7) 20 (18.7) 58 (13.9)
  1. M (SD), mean (standard deviation).
  2. EDSS, Expanded Disability Status Scale; MS, multiple sclerosis.
  3. ° the 24-month EDSS was not available for 56 individuals.
  4. * defined as worsened or non-worsened based on change in EDSS score from baseline to month 24 according to the definition of Lublin [Lublin 1996] and Kappos [Kappos 2004].
  5. Bold values: p-value < 0.05.