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Table 4 Regression coefficients (standard errors) of general practitioner and patient characteristics (number of general practitioners = 193) for mental health components score

From: Gender differences in health-related quality of life of Australian chronically-ill adults: patient and physician characteristics do matter

Parameters (reference category) Multilevel estimates for the main model
Male Female
Complete cases Imputed full model Complete cases Imputed full model
(n = 768) (n =1018) (n =823) (n =1163)
Fixed effects     
Intercept 35.52 35.09 32.80 34.16
Patient characteristics     
Age, years     
40-59 (18–39) 0.48 (2.64) 0.31 (2.49) 2.83 (1.96) 2.42 (1.57)
>59 (18–39) 1.89 (2.68) 1.68 (2.51) 6.33 (1.99) 5.62 (1.64)
Good or very good health (very bad, bad or fair health) 6.92 (0.75) 6.84 (0.79) 7.31 (0.71) 7.33 (0.62)
Own home & car (rented & don’t own car) 5.04 (1.87) 3.42 (1.71)* 1.37 (1.48) 1.50 (1.29)
Own home only (rented & don’t own a car) 3.24 (3.12) 0.30 (2.77) 0.47 (1.72) 0.27 (1.61)
Own car only (rented & don’t own car) 3.04 (1.98) 1.55 (1.93) 0.67 (1.66) 0.67 (1.43)
College / university (elementary / high school) 0.78 (0.79) 0.65 (0.78) 0.07 (0.79) 0.00 (0.72)
Employed patients (unemployed1) 2.95 (1.24)* 3.40 (1.18) 1.42 (1.01) 1.16 (1.03)
Retired patients (unemployed1) 4.95 (1.20) 5.43 (1.10) 2.62 (0.89) 2.86 (0.87)
Married/cohabiting (single/separated/divorced/widowed) 0.91(0.95) 0.96 (1.03) 2.29 (0.77) 2.43 (0.73)
Two or more conditions (one condition) 0.11 (0.74) −0.05 (0.77) −0.96 (0.76) −1.56 (0.73)*
Smoker (non-smoker) 1.62 (1.35) 1.16 (1.39) −4.20 (1.17) −3.99 (1.08)
Overall satisfaction with care 0.60 (0.35) 0.56 (0.36) 1.04 (0.34) 0.84 (0.34)*
General Practitioner characteristics     
Female (Male) 0.55 (1.06) 0.41 (1.04) −1.25 (0.81) −0.74 (0.75)
Overseas qualified (qualified in Australia) −1.87 (0.96) −1.73 (0.98) −0.28 (0.86) 0.02 (0.85)
Years in the current practice     
6–15 (< 6) −1.32 (0.99) −0.82 (0.97) 0.66 (0.91) 0.90 (0.88)
> 15 (< 6) −0.04 (0.97) 0.02 (0.99) 0.18 (0.97) 0.36 (1.02)
Years as a GP     
  19–24 (< 19) 0.35 (1.03) 0.51 (1.04) 0.88 (0.91) 0.49 (0.87)
  > 24 (< 19) 0.58 (1.07) 0.44 (1.13) 0.23 (1.02) −0.52 (1.04)
Size 1–3 GPs in the practice (4 or more GPs) −0.84 (0.78) −0.79 (0.80) −0.63 (0.77) −0.69 (0.69)
Urban practice (Rural practice) 0.87 (0.76) 0.93 (0.74) −0.34 (0.78) −0.32 (0.73)
Random effects     
Variance between general practitioners (standard errors) 0.00 (0.00) 0.92 (1.53) 0.00 (0.00) 0.30 (1.01)
% variance explained 100 84.3 100 88.1
Variance between patients (standard errors) 96.08 (4.90) 97.67 (5.35) 95.10 (4.69) 96.36 (4.43)
% variance explained 16.6 16.4 22.9 22.3
  1. Note: *P <0.05, P <0.01, P<0.001.
  2. 1Includes patients looking for work, studying full-time, looking after family and unable to work due to sickness or disability.
  3. Patient characteristics were collected independently using PACIC for the same respondents.