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Table 3 Regression coefficients (standard errors) of general practitioner and patient characteristics (number of general practitioners = 193) for physical components score

From: Gender differences in health-related quality of life of Australian chronically-ill adults: patient and physician characteristics do matter

Parameters (reference category) Multilevel estimates for the main model
Male Female
Complete cases Imputed full model Complete cases Imputed full model
(n = 768) (n =1018) (n =823) (n =1163)
Fixed effects     
Intercept 35.89 34.61 37.60 36.47
Patient characteristics     
Age, years     
40-59 (18–39) −6.18 (2.44)* −4.43 (2.39) −2.87 (1.92) −1.40 (1.60)
>59 (18–39) −7.62 (2.47) −5.82 (2.41)* −5.75 (1.96) −4.52 (1.62)
Good or very good health (very bad, bad or fair health) 11.11 (0.69) 10.92 (0.75) 12.93 (0.70) 12.37 (0.67)
Own home & car (rented & don’t own a car) 2.14 (1.72) 2.79 (1.52) 4.07 (1.45) 4.23 (1.38)
Own home only (rented & don’t own car) −0.83 (2.88) −0.38 (2.98) 1.56 (1.69) 2.03 (1.65)
Own car only (rented & don’t own a car) 1.74 (1.83) 2.57 (1.72) 1.13 (1.63) 1.32 (1.57)
College / university (elementary / high school) 1.68 (0.73)* 1.65 (0.70)* −0.19 (0.78) 0.05 (0.75)
Employed patients (unemployed1) 7.66 (1.15) 7.29 (1.04) 4.22 (0.99) 4.05 (1.08)
Retired patients (unemployed1) 3.90 (1.11) 3.86 (1.03) 0.09 (0.87) 0.08 (0.91)
Married/cohabiting (single/separated/divorced/widowed) 0.36 (0.88) 0.03 (0.87) 0.75 (0.75) 1.20 (0.72)
Two or more conditions (one condition) −2.20 (0.68) −2.57 (0.69) −1.79 (0.74)* −1.56 (0.72)*
Smoker (non-smoker) −0.54 (1.25) −0.43 (1.23) 0.67 (1.14) 0.67 (1.13)
Overall satisfaction with care 0.07 (0.32) 0.13 (0.30) −0.84 (0.33)* −0.78 (0.38)*
General Practitioner characteristics     
Female (Male) 1.52 (0.98) 1.48 (1.04) 2.19 (0.80) 1.59 (0.78)*
Overseas qualified (qualified in Australia) 1.39 (0.88) 1.37 (0.99) 0.47 (0.85) −0.09 (0.83)
Years in the current practice 6–15 (< 6) −0.27 (0.91) −0.44 (0.93) −0.80 (0.89) −0.58 (0.85)
> 15 (< 6) 0.02 (0.90) 0.08 (0.92) 1.05 (0.95) 1.20 (1.05)
Years as a GP     
19–24 (< 19) −0.80 (0.95) −1.04 (0.96) 0.62 (0.89) −0.43 (0.87)
> 24 (< 19) 0.61 (0.99) −0.04 (1.0) −0.57 (1.00) −0.91 (1.01)
Size 1–3 GPs in the practice (4 or more GPs) 1.04 (0.72) 0.82 (0.81) −1.54 (0.75)* −1.10 (0.72)
Urban practice (Rural practice) −0.18 (0.70) −0.09 (0.69) −0.27 (0.76) −0.05 (0.74)
Random effects     
Variance between general practitioners (standard errors) 0.00 (0.00) 1.15 (1.60) 0.00 (0.00) 0.93 (1.56)
% variance explained 100 70.2 100 90.3
Variance between patients (standard errors) 81.84 (4.18) 84.66 (4.81) 91.49 (4.51) 93.29 (5.21)
% variance explained 38.6 36.3 37.4 36.3
  1. Note:*P <0.05, P <0.01, P<0.001.
  2. 1Includes patients looking for work, studying full-time, looking after family and unable to work due to sickness or disability.
  3. Patient characteristics were collected independently using PACIC for the same respondents.